Anna M.Cienciala

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(revised) Spring 2004; in process of revision, summer 2009..




Note: (1) The term: East Central Europe is used to denote Poland, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Hungary, and these countries receive primary emphasis witha marginal treatment of East Germany (viewed as part of the German question), a shorter coverage of the Balkans, and the Baltic States ( works on the last two regions are placed at the end of East Central Europe); (2) Eastern Europe denotes the whole region from the Baltic to the Aegean. (3) Books and articles on the countries of this whole region are coming out all the time, so this is a bibliography in progress; (4) Publishers are generally not listed; (5) Biographical information on authors is provided when available to the compiler; (6) Diacritics are omitted because they are not available on this Internet program.

Please feel free to send additions, corrections and suggestions to Anna M. Cienciala at the e-mail address provided above, or at 



I - Communist Eastern Europe, 1945-1968
     A. Surveys and edited works, 1945-1968
     B. Documentary Collections on Communist Eastern Europe
     C. Special Topics
          1. Opposition and Dissent in Communist Eastern Europe before 1980
          2. Religion in Communist Eastern Europe
          3. The Communist Party Purges of 1948-54
          4. Soviet-East European Relations, 1945-80's
          5. U.S. and West European Relations with Eastern Europe, 1945-early 1980's
          6. Higher Education in E. Europe 1945-56
          7. Mass Media in East Central Europe under Capitalism and Communism

     D.  Sub-Periods by Country
          1. Czechoslovakia, 1945-68
               a. Czecholovakia: Studies of Political Events, Persecution, Purges, 1945-68
               b. The Sudeten Germans' expulsion from Czechoslovakia after WWII
          2. East Germany: The German Democratic Republic
          3. Hungary 1945-56, and the Revolution of 1956
               a. Surveys, Studies, Memoirs of Hungary 1945-56
               b. Purges and Show Trials of Hungarian Communists 1948-54
               c. The Hungarian Revolution, October-November 1956
               d. Documents on the Hungarian Revolution 1956
          4. Communist Poland, 1945-68-80
               a. Surveys
               b. The Economy of Communist Poland
               c. Communist Poland: Minorities and Regional Identities
               d. Communist Poland: Social Inequality, Entrepreneurs and Local Government
               e. Communist Poland: Women in Polish Politics; Research on Polish Women, 1970-90
               f. Poland, 1943-56: The Stalinst Period
                    (i) How the Communists seized power in Poland
                    (ii) Soviet Policy on Poland 1945-56
                    (iii) Building the Polish Communist Party State
                    (iv) Polish Peasant resistance to collectivization
                    (v) Stalinist Terror in Poland
                    (vi) The Deportation of Germans from Poland after WWII
                    (vii) Polish Americans' support of the Oder-Neisse Line as the Polish western frontier
                    (viii) Biographies of Polish Communist and other leaders
                    (ix) Interviews with leading Polish Communists of the 1945-56 period
                    (x) Literary Works on Communist Poland
                    (xi) Polish Social-Labor Hiistory 1945-50
                    (xii) Polish Foreign Policy; U.S.-Polish Relations, 1945-56
                    (xiii) The Polish October, 1956
                         (a) Studies
                         (b) Documents on the Polish October, 1956
          5. Czechoslavakia, 1968
               a. Detailed Studies
               b. Biographies, Memoirs of Prague Spring
               c. The Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia, August 1968
                    (i) Studies
                    (ii) Documents on the Prague Spring and Invasion f Czechoslovakia
II - Communist East Central Europe 1968-81
     A. Poland, 1956-81
          1. Analytical studies of Polish crises, 1956-90
          2. The Polish Economy, 1956-81
          3. The Background to Poland's Solidarity, 1976-80
          4. The Solidarity Revolution, Poland 1980-81
          5. The Polish United Workers' Party: Demands for Reform and the Crisis of 1980-81
          6. Solidarity: Writers, Poets, Philosophers
          7. American and Soviet reactions to Solidarity
          8. General W. Jaruzelski and Martial Law, December 12-13, 1981-82
          9. Documents on Polish Political Opposition. 1954-80, Solidarity and USSR
     B. Eastern Europe 1982-88
          1. Poland, 1982-88
               a. Poland, 1982-88, as seen from abroad
               b. Polish Social History, 1982-88
          2. Czechoslovakia, 1968-89
               a.  Studies
               b. Documents on Czechoslovakia, 1969-88
          3. Hungary, 1956-88
     C. The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989-90 and the Aftermath.
          1. General.
          2. Documents on the Revolutions of 1989.
          3. Poland, 1989-90.
          4. Hungary 1989-90
          5. German Democratic Republic: The End of the GDR, the Reunificaiton of Germany. 1989-90, and Consequences.
     D. Eastern Europe, 1989-90-2000
          1. General
          2. East Central Europe, 1989 and after: by Country
               a. Poland
               b. Czechoslovakia 1989 and after.
               c. Hungary, 1991-Present
               d. Minorities in Hungary and Hungarian minorities outside Hangary.
     E. The Balkans. 1945-Present.
          1.  Surveys.
          2. by Country
               a. Albania, 1944-92 and After.
                    (i) Communist Albania
                    (ii) Post-Communist Albania.
               b. Bulgaria
                    (i) Communist Bulgaria 1944-89
                    (ii) Post-Communist Bulgaria
               c. Romania
                    (i) Communist Romania 1945-89
                    (ii) The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 and Post-Communist Romania.
               d. Moldova
               e. Yugoslavia 1945-1989/90
                    (i) General
                    (ii) Josip Broz Tito and postwar Yugoslavia, 1945-1980
                    (iii) The Breakup of Yugoslavia
                    (iv) The War in Bosnia
                    (v) Croatia and its war with Yugoslavia
                    (vi) Kosovo and the Albanian Kosovars' war with Yugoslavia
                    (vii) Macedonia before and after its secession from Yugoslavia
                    (viii) Slovenia as a Yugoslav Republic and its independence from Yugoslavia
     F. The Three Baltic States: Under Soviet Rule, Toward Independence from the USSR, Independence and After.

          1. All Three States
          2. By Country
               a. Estonia: Communist and post-Communist

               b. Latvia
               c. Communist and Post-Communist Lithuania
III - Special Topics in East European History
     A. Gender and Ethnicity in Eastern Europe
     B. Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe in the Transition from Communism to Post-Communism.
Toward East European countries'membership into the East European Union


Reference Works.

For atlases, bibliographies, historical dictionaries, journals, and websites, please see the beginning of Part I of this bibliography.

I. Communist Eastern Europe, 1945-1968.


A. Surveys and edited works.

Derek H. Aldcroft and Steven Morewood, Economic Change in Eastern Europe since 1918 (Aldershot, England, and Brookfield, VT., 1995) ch. 5-7

(Good economic history; Aldcroft was then a Research Professor in Economic History at Manchester Metropolitan University; Morewood was Lecturer in Social and Economic History at the University of Manchester.)

Anders Aslund, How Capitalism Was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia, Cambridge, Eng., 2007; see review by Richard Pomfret, Slavic Review, vol. 67, no. 3, fall 2008, pp. 738-739


J F. Brown, Eastern Europe under Communist Rule,(Durham, N.C,. and London, 1988).

(J.F. Brown, an American expert on E.Europe, was at that time a Visiting Fellow with the Rand/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior. This is avery good survey by country.) 


R.J. Crampton, EASTERN EUROPE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, (London, New York, 1994).

(v. good, synthetic approach, with special chapters on Czechoslovakia 1948 and Polish Solidarity 1980-81. On Crampton, see Pt. I, Reference Works, Historical Atlases).

Grzegorz Ekiert, The State Against Society: Political Crises and Their Aftermath in East Central Europe, (Princeton, N.J., 1996).

(discussion of Hungarian Revolution 1956, Prague Spring 1968, also politics and government in Poland, 1980-89. G. Ekiert, b. 1956, author of other books on East Central Europe, is professor of Government at Harvard University.)


Grzegorz Ekiert and Stephen E. Hanson, eds., Capitalism and Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe: Assessing the Legacy of Communist Rule, (Cambridge, MA, 2003);

( see review by Stephen White in Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 2, summer 2005, pp. 407-408.)

Ben Fowkes, Eastern Europe 1945-1969. From Stalinism to Stagnation, Pearson Education, Seminar Studies in History, (Longman, Harlow, England, and elsewhere, 2000.)

(designed for the non-specialist reader, this is a very good, brief, analytical study of all East European communist countries in this period with maps, selected documents and bibliography. Ben Fowkes was then a Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Humanities, University of North London, England.)


Norman Naimark & Leonid Gibianskii, The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949, Boulder,CO., 1997).

(Papers by a number of specialists.

Naimark, an expert on East Germany, is Professor of History at Stanford University; Gibianskii is Senior Researcher at the Institute of Slavonic and Balkan Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Read the Introduction by Naimark and Gibianskii, pp. 1-16 and essay “War As Revolution” by Jan Gross; Ch. 1 is on the CPSU, the Cominform and Bulgaria; ch. 3. on the Soviet Leadership and Southeastern Europe; ch. 4 on Hungary; ch. 6 and 11 on East Germany; Chapters 5,7, 8 are on Poland; ch. 9 on Yugoslavia, ch.10 on Communist Higher Education Policies in Czechoslovakia, Poland and East Germany;ch. 12, Czech Road to Communism; ch. 6, and ch. 14 on the Soviet-Yugoslav Split and the Cominform; ch. 13 on the Marshall Plan, Soviet-American Relations and the Division of Europe. This is a most valuable collection of papers on the topic.)

Sabrina P. Ramet, ed., EASTERN EUROPE. Politics, Culture, and Society since 1939, (Bloomington, IN., 1998). 

(S. Ramet, a Balkan specialist, then taught international relations at the University of Washington, Seattle, but later moved to Sweden. After an Introduction by Gale Stokes on “Eastern Europe’s Defining Fault Lines,” there are survey chapters by specialists on each country, followed by thematic chapters on Women and the Politics of Gender; Religion and Politics; Cinema; the Economic Challenges of Post-Communist Marketization; Democracy, Markets and Security; Democracy, Politics and the Cycles of History.) 

Same, NIHIL OBSTAT. Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia, (Durham, N.C., and London, 1998).

(A very good survey. Part I is a general, comparative perspective. Pt. II, deals with Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Pt. III. covers the Balkans; pt. IV. covers the former Soviet Union, and pt. V. deals with Postcommunist trends. (see also her book: The Cross and Commissar, section 3 below).

Same, The Liberal Project and the Transformation of Democracy: The Case of East Central Europe, (College Station, TX, 2007),

( see review by Minton F. Goldman, Slavic Review, vol. 67, no. 3, fall 2008, pp. 748-749.)


Joseph Rotschild, Return to Diversity. A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II, (4th edition,revised with additionsby Nancy Wingfield, New York, Oxford, 2008).

(Rotschild, d. 1999, was a professor of Political Science, Columbia University, New York; he also published a book on interwar E.Europe and a book on Jozef Pilsudski’s Coup d’Etat of 1926. Nancy Wingfield teaches history at Northern Illinois State University and edits the journal: The Nationalities Papers. She has published books and articles on modern Czechoslovakia.)


Jacques Rupnik, The Other Europe. The Rise and Fall of Communism in East Central Europe, (rev. ed.New York, 1989).  (Rupnik, a Czech journalist and scholar based in France, was a leading western expert on E. Europe.)


Thomas W. Simons, Jr. Eastern Europe in the Postwar World,(New York, 1991). 

(An insightful, well written survey; Simons is an American scholar anddiplomat; in 1991, he was U.S. ambassador to Poland.)


Geoffrey Swain and Nigel Swain, Eastern Europe since 1945, (2nd edition, New York, 1998), ch.1-6.

(Good survey with tables of economic statistics and a chronology. Ch. 6 is valuable for discussing the topic of “Reform Communism and Economic Reform.” Geoffrey.Swain was then professor of Modern History, University of the West England; his brother Nigel was Lecturer in History and Director of the Centre for Central and East European Studies, University of Liverpool, England.)


B. Documentary Collections on Communist Eastern Europe.


Robert V. Daniels, Documentary History of Communism, (New York, 1960 and many later editions).

( Excellent selection.)

Lyman H. Legters, ed., Eastern Europe. Transformation and Revolution, 1945-1991. Documents and Analyses (Lexington, Mass, Toronto, 1992). 

(selections of writings by experts, with documents, maps, and chronology of events. Lyman Legters, a professor emeritus of the University of Washington, Seattle, WA., is an expert on Hungary.)


Gale Stokes, From Stalinism to Pluralism. A Documentary Historyof Eastern Europe since 1945, (New York, 2 ed. Oxford, 1996).

(Documentswith useful commentaries. Stokes, a specialist on Serbia/Yugoslavia, then taught at Rice University, Houston, TX.) 


Paul Zinner, ed., National Communism and Popular Revolt in Eastern Europe, New York, 1956 

(This is a detailed documentary collection on the change of Polish leadership and the Hungarian Revolution of October-November 1956, but has been superseded by doc. collections published after 1989 (see under Hungary and Poland below). 

(Paul Zinner (b. Kosice, Czechoslovakia, 1922), served in the U.S. Army in WW II, and as an analyst State Dept,. 1945-49. He obtained his Ph.D. at Harvard, 1953; taught at several universities, then worked in broadcasting for many years. His last known address was at the University of California, Davis, CA.).


C. Special Topics.


1. Opposition and Dissent in Communist Eastern Europe before 1980.


Rudolf F. Tokes, ed., Opposition in Eastern Europe, (Baltimore and London, 1979.) 

(v. good collection of papers on the period 1968-78, written by Tokes, V. Kusin, J. Rupnik, W. Volkmer, G. Schopflin, I. Szelenyi, Alex Pravda and G. Lewis, covers Human Rights & Political Change, then by country; also Socialist opposition, Industrial Workers, Peasants.) 

2. Religion in Communist Eastern Europe


Pedro Ramet, CROSS AND COMMISSAR. The Politics of Religion in Eastern Europe and the USSR (Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987).

(theoretical and by country studies, except Romania. Pedro (Sabrina) Ramet, is a prolific author and editor who then taught International Relations at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA..

(see also her books insection 1 above).

3. The Communist Party Purges of 1948-54:

George H. Hodos, Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europe, 1948-1954, (New York, Westport, Ct., London,1987). 

(Hodos is a Hungarian specialist; the book focuses on Hungary, but covers the other countries as well.) 


4. Soviet-East European Relations, 1945- 80s.


Tufton Beamish& Guy Hadley, THE KREMLIN'S DILEMMA. The Struggle for Human Rights in Eastern Europe(San Rafael, Ca., London, 1979).

(On Helsinki and Human Rights; survey of dissent in Poland, Hungary, Romania, East Germany, Bulgaria; somewhat dated by now.)


Leonid Gibianskii, “The Soviet Bloc in the Initial Stages of the Cold War: Archival Documents on Stalin’s Meetings with Communist Leaders of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, 1946-1948,” in: Leadership in Transition in a Fractured Bloc. Cold War International Cold War History Project. Bulletin, issue 10, (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., March 1998), pp. 112- 134. 

(Gibianskii, then a senior researcher at the Institute of Slavonic and Balkan Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, gives an introduction and edits documents on the topic.)


Robert L. Hutchings, SOVIET-EAST EUROPEAN RELATIONS. Consolidation and Conflict, 1968-1980 (Madison, Wisc., 1983). 

(excellent survey of political, ideological and economic relations by an American specialist on the USSR, but many documents have surfaced since 1983.)


Christopher Jones, ed., SOVIET INFLUENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE. Political Autonomy and the Warsaw Pact, (New York, 1980).


Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, ed.,SOVIET POLICY IN EASTERN EUROPE, (New Haven, London, 1984). 

(a study of all aspects of these relations by a specialist on the region. Terry then taught Political Science at Tufts University, Medford, MA. See also her book on Poland in WWII: Poland's Place in Europe.General Sikorski and the Oder-Neisse Line, electronic copy.)


Roman Szporluk, ed., THE INFLUENCE OF EAST EUROPE AND THE SOVIET WEST ON THE USSR, (New York, Washington, London, 1975).

(Perceptive insights; coverage up to early 1970s is general and by country, including Baltic States and Ukraine. Szporluk, an American historian of E.Europe of Ukrainian descent, has authored books on Ukraine and Masaryk. He teaches at the Ukrainian Studies Center, Harvard University.)


5. U.S. and West European Relations with Eastern Europe, 1945-early 1980s:

Morris Bornstein, Zvi Gitelman and William Zimmerman,eds., EAST-WEST RELATIONS AND THE FUTURE OF EASTERN EUROPE. Politics and Economics, (London, 1981).

(covers the 1970's with predictions for the 1980's; good for views by experts at the time.)


Lincoln Gordon et al, ERODING EMPIRE. Western Relations with Eastern Europe, (Washington,Brookings Institution, 1987).

(perceptive views on eroding Soviet empire by experts living in U.S., West Germany, Gt. Britain, Vienna and Rome.)


Bennett Kovrig, OF WALLS AND BRIDGES. The United States and Eastern Europe, (New York and London, 1991). 

(good, thematic, coverage of U.S. policy from 1945 to about 1988, by a specialist on Hungary.)


6. Higher Education in E. Europe 1945-56.


John Connelly, Captive University. The Sovietization of German, Czech and Polish Higher Education, 1945-1956, (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2001).

(Sovietization was most effective in East Germany; many “bourgeois” Polish professors kept their jobs. In both Poland and Czechoslovakia, many worker and peasant children gained access to higher education, but so did the children of the former middle class and intelligentsia, as did those of the “new class.” John Connelly was then an associate professor of history at the University of California, Berkeley.) 


Gyorgy Peteri, Academia and State Socialism: Essays on the Political History of Academic Life in Post-1945 Hungary and Eastern Europe, (East European Monographs no. 501, Boulder CO., and New York, 1998).

(Covers government control of higher education through 1976.) 



7. Mass Media in East Central Europe under Communism and Capitalism.


Colin Sparks, Communism, Capitalism and the Mass Media, (Media, Culture and Society Series, Sage Publications, London, 1998).

(Surveys mass media under capitalism and communism in Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.) 



D. Sub-Periods by country:

1. Czechoslovakia, 1945-1968.


1. Surveys:


Josef Korbel, Twentieth Century Czechoslovakia. The Meanings of itsHistory, (New York, 1977), ch.9: 1945-48, ch. 10, 1948-1962. 

(By a former Czechoslovak diplomat, then professor of Political Science at the University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; father of Madeleine Albright, teacher of Condoleeza Rice.) 


Victor S. Mamatey and Radomir Luza eds., A History of the Czechoslovak Republic, 1918-1948 (Princeton, N.J., 1973), Part III, chs. 16-17 cover the period 1945-48.

(Good survey. On authors, see Pt. II. of Bibliography, Interwar Czechoslovakia.)


H.Gordon Skilling, ed., Czechoslovakia, 1918-1988. Seventy Years from Independence, (NewYork, 1991).

Conference papers on various aspects and periods of Czech and Slovak history and culture edited by a Canadian Political Scientists, a specialist on the country.




a. Czechoslovakia: Studies of Political Events, Persecution, Purges, 1945-68.

Bradley F. Abrams, The Struggle for the Soul of the Nation: Czech Culture and the Rise of Communism, (Lanham, MD, 2004).

(Reviews by Mark Cornwall in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 2, summer 2007, pp. 319-320 and Melissa Feinberg, HABSBURG, H-Net Reviews, March 2005, URL.


Karel Kaplan, Political Persecution in Czechoslovakia, 1948-1972, (Cologne, Germany, 1983).

(Karel Kaplan, b. 1926, is a Czech historian who settled in the West in 1971 and authored several other books. Before leaving Czechoslovakia after the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion, he discovered documents in the Prague archives on the Noel Field case and the Rosenbergs; the documents were released by the CIA in 1977.)


Same, The Short March. The Communist Takeover of Czechosloslovakia, 1945-1948, (New York, 1987).

(Probably the best study of the subject.)


Same, Report on the Murder of the General Secretary,Translated by Karel Kovanda, (Columbus, Ohio, 1990). 

(Deals with the arrest and trial of Rudolf Slansky -- Rudolf Salzmann --1901-1952. He was Secretary General of the Party, 1948-51; arrested on the trumped up charge of heading a Jewish conspiracy to overthrow communism in Czechoslovakia. He was executed; see: Josefa Slanska, below.)


Josef Korbel, The Communist Subversion of Czechoslovakia, 1938-1948: the failure of coexistence, (Princeton, N.J.1959). 

(An eyewitness account by a Czech diplomat, later professor of Political Science at the University of Colorado, father of Madeleine Albright and teacher of Condoeeza Rice.)

Heda Margolius Kovaly, Under a Cruel Star. A Life in Prague 1941-1968, (Cambridge, Mass., 1986).

(Personal story by the wife of a purged Czech Communist.)


Eugene Loebl, Sentenced and Tried: The Stalinist Purges in Czechoslovakia, (London, Toronto, 1968).

(By a Czech Communist imprisoned in the purges.)


Andrew Oxley, Alex Pravda, Andrew Ritchie, eds., CZECHOSLOVAKIA. THE PARTY AND THE PEOPLE, (New York, 1973). 

(The papers deal primarily with 1968, but Part Three, re-examines the past, including the purge trials.) 


Jiri Pelikan,ed., The Czechoslovak Political Trials of 1950-1954: The Suppressed Report of the Dubcek Government's Commission of Inquiry, 1968, (Stanford, Ca., 1971).

(Pelikan, 1926-1999, a chess master, was a leader in the Czech 1968 reform era, later a scholar working in the U.S.)


Hubert Ripka, Czechoslovakia Enslaved. The Story of the Communist Coup d'Etat, (London, 1950). 

(By an anti-Communist Czech politician who experienced the coup; later taught Political Science in U.S.) 


Josefa Slanska, Report on My Husband, (London, 1969).

(By the widow of the Czechoslovak Secretary General, Rudolf Slansky, who was sentenced to death and executed in 1951.) 


Edward Taborsky, President Edvard Benes Between East and West, 1938-1948, (Stanford, Ca., 1981),. ch. 10, 11 on the President's last years, 1945-48. 

(By a personal secretary to President Benes, later professor of Political Science in U.S. Taborsky’spapers are in the Hoover Institute archives, Stanford, CA. The book gives important insights into Benes.)


same, Communism in Czechoslovakia, 1948-1960,(Princeton, N.J., 1961). 


Paul E. Zinner, Communist Strategy and Tactics in Czechoslovakia, 1918-1948, (Westport, Ct., 1975). 

(Compare with J. Korbel work above.)

b. The Sudeten Germans’ expulsion from Czechoslovakia after WW II.


Radomir Luza, THE TRANSFER OF THE SUDETEN GERMANS. A Study of Czech-German Relations, 1933-1962 (New York, 1964), Part IV, ch.11-14.

(By an American historian of Czech descent.) 

NOTE: Forced deportation is a violation of human rights, but we must bear in mind that most Sudeten Germans supported the Nazi leader, Konrad Henlein, in 1935-38, and benefitted from the annexation of the region to Germany in late 1938, when many Czechs were expelled. Therefore, President Benes’s decrees expelling the Sudeten Germans were supported by the vast majority of Czechs, and are still supported by them today.


Ronald M. Smelser, "The Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans: 1945-1952," NATIONALITIES PAPERS, VOL. 24, No. 1, March 1996 (pp. 79-92).

(A good survey of the topic.)


2. East Germany: The German Democratic Republic.


David Childs, THE GDR: Moscow’s Germany Ally(London, 1983), ch. 1-3.

(D.Childs was then Reader in Politics at Nottingham University, England. An earlier version of the book was published in 1969 and serialized in the BBC German language service. Much new material became accessible after the fall of the GDR. 1991.)

Gareth Dale, Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945-1989, (London, 2005).

(Review by Robert Goeckel in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 3, fall 2007, pp. 516-517.)


Mike Dennis, The Rise and Fall of the German Democratic Republic, 1945-1990, (Pearson Education Series, Longman, Edinburgh, 2000).

(Parts 1- 3 cover the years 1945-71. M. Dennis was then professor of Modern History at the University of Wolverhampton, England. An earlier publication of his is: The German Democratic Republic, 1988.)


Germany and Eastern Europe since 1945. From the Potsdam Agreement to Chancellor Brandt’s “Ostpolitik,” (Keesing’s Research Report no. 8., New York, 1973).

(This is a very useful, chronological list of treaties and agreements for both Germanies from 1945 to 1973.)

Hope M. Harrison, Driving the Soviets up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961, (Princeton, NJ, 2003).

(Review by Mathilde von Buelow, "The Tail That Wagged the Dog," H-German, H-Net Reviews, November 2006, URL:


James McAdams, EAST GERMANY AND DETENTE. Building Authority after the Wall, (Cambridge, England, 1985), ch. 1-3.

(James McAdams was then asst. prof. of Politics at Princeton University.)


Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany. A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation 1945-1949 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, England, 1995).

(Fascinating picture of the Soviet occupation based on Russian and German documents. Naimark teaches at Stanford University.)

Edward N. Peterson, The Limits of Secret Police Power: The Magdeburger Stasi, 1953-1989, (New York, NY, 2004).

(Review by Jefferson Adams, H-German, H-Net Reviews, November 2005, URL:

Andrew Port, Conflict and Stability in the German Democratic Republic, (New York, NY, 2007).

(Review by Gary Bruce, "The GDR as a Responsive Dictatorship," H-German, H-Net Reviews, October 2007, URL:


3. Hungary 1945-56, and the Revolution of 1956.

a. Surveys, Studies, Memoirs of Hungary 1945-56:

Egon Balas, Will to Freedom: A Perilous Journey through Fascism and Communism, (Syracuse, N.Y., 2000).

(Memoirs of Jewish experiences during World War II and in communist Hungary, Romania.)

Laszlo Borhi, Hungary in the Cold War: Between the United States and the Soviet Union, 1945-1956, (Budapest and New York, NY, 2004).

(Reviews by: Federigo Argentieri in The American Historical Review, June 2006, pp. 926-927; Johanna Granville, “The Hungarian Quicksand Pit to Socialism,” H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews, February 2006, URL:

Randolph Braham, ed., The Treatment of the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania During the Post-Communist Era,( New York, NY, 2004).

(Braham is the leading expert on the subject.)

Andrew Handler and Susan V. Meschel compilers, Red Star, Blue Star: The Lives and Times of Jewish Students in Communist Hungary (1945-1956), (East European Monographs no. 487, Boulder CO., and New York, 1997).

Bennett Kovrig, Communism in Hungary: From Kun to Kadar,(Stanford, Ca., Hoover Inst. Press, 1979).

(By an American- Hungarian expert on Hungary.)

Martin Mevius, Agents of Moscow: The Hungarian Communist Party and the Origins of Socialist Patriotism, 1941-1953,( Oxford and New York, NY, 2005).

(Reviews by: Laszlo Borhi in The American Historical Review, October 2006, pp. 1277-1278; Johanna Granville, “Hungarian Nationalism to Sell Socialism: Caveat Emptor,” H-Russia, H-Net Reviews, August 2006, URL:

Miklos Molnar, FROM BELA KUN TO JANOS KADAR. Seventy Years of Hungarian Communism,(Providence, R.I., 1990), ch.9, pp. 154-175.

(The author, born in Hungary, was then professor at the Institut Universitaire des Hautes Eudes, Geneva.)

Janos M. Rainer and Gyorgy Peteri, eds., Muddling through in the Long 1960s: Ideas and Everyday Life in High Politics and the Lower Classes of Communist Hungary, (Budapest, 2005).

(Review by Mark Pittaway in Slavic Review, vol. 65, no. 3, fall 2006, pp. 580-581.)

Tamas Stark, Hungarian Jews During the Holocaust and After the Second World War, 1939-1949, (New York, NY, 2000).

Peter F.Sugar et al, A History of Hungary, ch. XX. 

(Good historical survey by an outstanding, Hungarian born historian of Eastern Europe who taught at the University of Washington Seattle, d. 1999)

Szonja Szelenyi, Karen Aschaffenburg et al., Equality by Design: The Grand Experiment in Destratification in Socialist Hungary, Stanford, CA., 1998.

- sociological studies of class structure and class destratification, property, mobility, careers, cadres, and fate of the old elite in post-communist Hungary.

b. Purges and Show Trials of Hungarian Communists. 1948-1954.

George H. Hodos, SHOW TRIALS. Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europe, 1948-1954,New York, Wesport Ct., London, 1987 (Rajk trial, pp. 33-72).

M.Molnar, FROM BELA KUN TO JANOS KADAR, ch, 8 (PP. 141-153).

Laszlo Rajk and his Accomplices before the People's Court: A Transcript of the Rajk Trial, Budapest, 1949.

- official transcript of the rigged trial of Laszlo Rajk (1909-1949), Minister of Interior, 1945-48, Foreign Minister, 1948-49.

Eric Roman, The Stalin Years in Hungary, Lewiston, N.Y., 1999.

- purges and trials in Stalinist period.

c. The Hungarian Revolution, October-November 1956.

(i) Studies, memoirs.

Csaba Bekes, "New Findings on the 1956 Hungarian Revolution,"Cold War International History Project, BULLETIN, issue 2, Fall, 1992, pp. 1-3.. 

(Ci tes new documents on the subject. )

same, Malcolm Byrne and Janos M. Rainer, eds., The 1956 Hungarian Revolution: A History in Documents,( Budapest and New York, 2004).

(reviewed by Ivan T. Berend, Slavic Review, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 162-63; Federigo Argentieri in The American Historical Review, June 2006, pp. 926-927; Johanna Granville, “The Hungarian Quicksand Pit to Socialism,” H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews, February 2006, URL:

Karl Philip Benziger, "Imre Nagy, Martyr of the Nation: Contested Memory and Social Cohesion," East Eurpeoan Quarterly, v. XXXVI, no. 2, Jan. 20002, pp. 171-190 .

(Benzinger is an assoc. professor in the Dept. of History, Rhode Island College.He has also written on the trial and 1946 execution of Hungary's wartime premier, Laszlo Bardossy, on which see book by Pal Pritz, New York, 2005.).)


 same, Imre Nagy, Martyr of the Nation. Cotested History, Legitimacy, and Popular Memory in Hungary (Lexington Book, Lanham etc, 2008)..

(Interesting study of popular memory, political fights over appropriating Nagy, and his treatment in post-1989 textbooks.)

Janos Berecz, Counter-Revolution in Hungary - Words and Weapons, (Budapest, 1969, 1986).

(Official account of the revolution written according to the party line with much emphasis on nefarious U.S. policy.)

Laszlo Eorsi, The Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Myths and Realities, translated by Mario D. Fenyo, Boulder, CO, 2006;

(Review by Andrew Felkay in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 4, winter 2007, pp. 737-739.)

Ferenc Feher and Agnes Heller, Hungary 1956 Revisited, (London,1983).

(A Socialist interpretation by two dissidentHungarian philosophers.)

Charles Gati, Hungary and the Soviet Bloc, (Duke UniversityPress, Durham N.C.,1986.includes a good, short analysis of the H. Revolution by an American expert on Hungary.)

same, Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt, (Palo Alto, CA, 2006)

(Uses Russian and Hungarian documents; blames Nagy for lack of initiative when it was needed, and the U.S. and Radio Free Europe for the continued fighting..He also discusses the question of the Soviet decision to intervene. Reviewed in all relevant academicjournals including the Russian Review, vol. 66, no. 1,2007, pp.528-529, by Cienciala.)


Johanna C. Granville, The First Domino. International Decision Making during the Hungarian Crisis of 1956 (Texas A&M, College Station, 2004).

(Interesting insights; see Cienciala in Russian Review, vol. 64, no. 2, April 2005, pp. 360-361.)

A. Ross Johnson, “To the Barricades: Did Radio Free Europe Inflame the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1956? Exploring One of the Cold War’s Most Stubborn Myths,” Hoover Digest, 2007, no. 4, fall, pp. 167-178.

(Argues that RFE did not play a significant rule in the outbreak of the revolution.)

Bela Kiraly, et al eds., The First War Between Socialist States: The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and its Impact, (New York, 1983).

(B. Kiraly, b. Hungary, 1912, was the Military Commander of Budapest during the revolution; he emigrated to U.S. after the revolution of 1956, and became a historian. He returned to Budapest after the fall of communism. 


Paul Lendvai, The Hungarians. A Thousand Years of Victory in Defeat, (Princeton, 2003).


(The chapter on 1939-1990 has interesting information on internal party struggles in 1952-56, but does not give details on Soviet advisers present in Budapest before the decision to intervene was made in Moscow on 31 October.)



Gyorgy Litvan, ed., THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION OF 1956. Reform, Revolt and Repression 1953-1963, English version edited and translated by Janos M. Bak and Lyman H. Legters, (Longman), London, New York, 1996).

(Chapters written by specialists, all of them Hungarian except for G. Schopflin. The book is an importantwork on the subject, but lacksfootnotes or end notes, presumably because the sources referred to are in Hungarian.)


Imre Nagy, On Communism. In Defense of the New Course,(Westport, Ct., 1974, reprint of Praeger ed. 1957).

(Imre Nagy, 1896-1958, wasa Communist since 1917; lived in USSR 1929-44; held posts in Hung. govt. after 1944; Premier 1953-55, when he launched "New Course," and again in October-Nov.1956. During the Soviet invasion, he was arrested, held in Romania, and executed in Budapest 1958 and buried with others in an unmarked grave. He was rehabilitated and re-buriedwith honors June 1989. This is his account of the years 1953-55, when he liberalized the communist system in Hungary with Soviet consent. For biography, see Benziger above.)


Tsaba Teglas, Budapest Exit: A Memoir of Fascism, Communism and Freedom, (College Station, Texas, 1998).

(Memoirs of a Hungarian who experienced World War II, communist Hungary, the revolution of 1956, and the collapse of communism.)

Ferenc A. Vali, Rift and Revolt in Hungary. Nationalism versus Communism, (Cambridge, Mass., 1961).

(Interesting study by an American sociologist of Hungarian origin.) 

d. Documents on the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.

Leonid Gibianskii, “Soviet-Yugoslav Relations and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956,” in: Cold War International History Project Bulletin, issue 10, (Washington, D.C., March, 1998), pp. 139-149.

Russian documents introduced and edited by a Russian specialist.


Jeno Gyorkei and Miklos Horvath, eds., SOVIET MILITARY INTERVENTION IN HUNGARY, 1956, with a study by Alexandr M. Kirov and memoirs of Yevegeny U. Malashenko, (Budapest, 1999).

(J. Gyorkei and M.Horvath are Hungarian historians; A.M. Kirov is a Russian military historian; Y.I. Malashenko is a Russian Lt. General who participated in the Soviet military intervention in Hungary. These are Russian and Hungarian documents turned over to the Hungarian government by President Boris N. Yeltsin during his visit there in November 1992. They provide fascinating details and insights both on Soviet policy making and the efforts of Nagy’s government to manage the revolution. )


Vojtech Mastny, ed., EAST EUROPEAN DISSENT, vol. 1, 1953-64, (New York, Facts on File 1972, Hungarian Uprising (pp. 99-140); 

(Outdated but still useful to any student of the Hungarian revolution.)


Gale Stokes, ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism, (2nd edition, Oxford, 1996), The Hungarian Revolution, pp. 81-87.


Paul E. Zinner, ed., NATIONAL COMMUNISM AND POPULAR REVOLT IN EASTERN EUROPE. A Selection of Documents on Events in Poland and Hungary, February- November 1956, (New York, 1956), Part Three: Hungary, ch. 1-IX, pp. 317-484. 

(Same comments as on Mastny. On Zinner, see: Documentary Collections on Communist Eastern Europe).


4. Communist Poland, 1945-68-80.

a. Surveys:


Norman Davies, God's Playground.A History of Poland, vol. II. 1795 to the Present, New York, 1982, revised ed. 1989,Part II, Poland since 1944 (pp. 539-633).

(By the leading British historian of Poland.

Richard Hiscocks, POLAND. BRIDGE FOR AN ABYSS? An Interpretation of Developments in Post-War Poland, (London, Oxford, Toronto, 1963).

(Favorable account by a Canadian scholar who paid annual visits to Poland in 1957-61.)


Jakub Karpinski, Countdown: The Polish Upheavals of 1956, 1968,1970, 1976 and 1980 (New York, Karz Cohl, 1982).

(J. Karpinski, 1940-2003, historian and sociologist, participated in the 1968 student protests and emigrated to U.S. He worked for the Solidarity movement through the Committee to Support Solidarity and the Institute for Democracy in Europe (IDEE). He was supported in this work by his partner, later wife, Irena Lasota. He published 11 books in Polish and 4 in English. His literary pseudonyms included the names of Marek Tarniewski and Jan Nowicki.)


R.J. Leslie, ed., The History of Poland since 1863, (Cambridge, England, 1980), ch. 11-15, by Jan Ciechanowski.

(Good survey, but somewhat skewed by author's overt dislike of Polish nobility, and now partly outdated after the brief opening of Russian archives and full openin of Polish communist archives.)

Andrzej B. Paczkowski, The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom, trans. by Jane Cave (University Park, PA, 2003).


(Good survey by a prolific Polish historian. Unfortunately, the book lacks end notes.)

Jan B. de Weydenthal, The Communists of Poland. An Historical Outline, (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, Ca.,rev. ed., 1986).

(Good survey by a political scientist of Polish origin who worked in the Polish section of Radio Free Europe; now somewhat outdated for same reasons as book by Leslie See also book on same topic by M.K.Dziewanowski.)


Richard F. Staar, POLAND 1944-1962. The Sovietization of a Captive People, (Louisiana, 1962).

(Good but somewhat dated account by an American specialist of Polish descent.)


Hansjakob Stehle, THE INDEPENDENT SATELLITE. Society and Politics in Poland since 1945 (New York, 1965).

(Sympathetic survey by a German scholar; same comment as on R.F. Staar.)


b. The Economy of Communist Poland:


Andrzej Korbonski, Politics of Socialist Agriculture in Poland, 1945-1960 (New York, 1965).

(Classic study by an American political scientist of Polish origin, b. Poznan, 1927, who taught for many years at UCLA.) 


Zbigniew Landau and Jerzy Tomaszewski, The Polish Economy in the Twentieth Century, trans. W. Roszkowski (New York, 1985),(pt. 4, pp. 181-286.

(Good survey by two Polish specialists, written under some political constraints. Landau is an eminent Polish economic historian; Roszkowski is an eminent Polish economic and political historian, who held the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. in 1999-2002.)


c. Communist Poland: Minorities and Regional Identities.


Karl Cordell, “Politics and Society in Upper Silesia Today: The German Minority since 1945,” Nationalities Papers, vol. 24, no. 2, 1996, pp. [269] - 285.

(Cordell then taught at the University of Plymouth, England; he brings the strory up to 1995).


Tomasz Kamusella, “The Upper Silesian’s Stereotyped Perception of the Poles and the Germans,” East European Quarterly, vol. XXXIII, no. 3, September 1999, pp. 395-410.

(Kamusella, a specialist on the subject and a native of Upper Silesia, sketches the history of the region and explains the natives’ view of Poles and Germans, also their rulers. He held a Kluge Fellowship in the Library of Congress, 2003-04, then taught at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. He has published several books; the latest is his masterly work: The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe (Palgrave, Macmillan, New York, 2008) Table of Contents: .Introduction * Language in Central Europe: An Overview * The Broader Linguistic and Cultural Context of Central Europe * PART I: CENTRAL EUROPEAN POLITICS AND LANGUAGES IN THE LONG NINETEENTH CENTURY * The Polish Case: From Nation to Nation * The Hungarian Case: From Nation to the Ersatz Nation-State * The Czech Case: From the Bohemian Slavophone Populus to Czech Nationalism and the Czechoslovak Nation * The Slovak Case: From Upper Hungary's Slavophone Populus to Slovak Nationalism and the Czechoslovak nation * PART II: NATIONALISMS AND LANGUAGE IN THE SHORT TWENTIETH CENTURY * The Polish Nation: From the Multiethnic to Ethnically Homogenous Nation-State * The Hungarian Nation: From Hungary to Magyarország * The Czech Nation: Between Czechoslovak and Czech Nationalism * The Slovak Nation: From Czechoslovakia to Slovakia * Conclusion. NB. This is taken from the Palgrave,Macmillan online ad, with stars.)

Gabriele Simoncini, “National Minorities of Poland at the End of the Twentieth Century,” Polish Review, vol. XLIII, no. 2, 1998, pp. 173-193.

(Minorities in interwar Poland are estimated at 36%, while those in contemporary Poland are about 3.5-5.5%. Simoncini is a specialist in minority studies on the Czech Republic,Poland, Russia and Slovakia; at this time, he was teaching in the Dept. of History, Pace University, Pleasantville, N.Y.).


d. Communist Poland: Social Inequality, Entrepreneurs and Local Government:


Wladyslaw Majkowski, PEOPLE'S POLAND. Patterns of Social Inequality and Conflict, (Westport Ct., 1985).

(Majkowski examines the problem of class in communist Poland, focusing on the workers’ revolts in 1956, 1970, 1976 and 1980. We know more about these revolts since 1989, especially about Solidarity, 1980-81, but his book is still useful.)


Carole Nagengast, RELUCTANT SOCIALISTS, RURAL ENTREPRENEURS.Class, Culture, and the Polish State, (Boulder, Co., 1991).

(Good study with historical background.) 

Jaroslaw Piekalkiewicz,COMMUNIST LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A Study of Poland, (Athens, Ohio, 1975).

(A classic study of the subject, covering mostly the 1960s. Jaroslaw Piekalkiewicz, b. Poland, 1926, is Prof. Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. He fought in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, studied at St. Andrews University, Scotland, in Dublin, Ireland, and Indiana University, Bloomington IN.)


e. Communist Poland: Women in Polish Politics; Research on Polish Women, 1970-90. (See also in Collapse of Communism in Poland, 1989).


Padraic Kenney, “Gender of Resistance in Communist Poland,” American Historical Review, vol. 104, no. 2, April 1999, pp. 399-425.

( Kenney argues that Polish women contributed greatly to the fall of communism, but admits that theirs was a secondary role. He witnessed the fall of communism in Poland as a grad. student at the University of Wroclaw. See his book on 1989, The Carnival of Revolution. Central Europe 1989 (Princeton, 2002.)He then taught in the History Department, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO, but moved to Indiana University, Bloomington, IN., in 2008.)


Elzbieta Pakszys, “The State of Research on Polish Women in the last two Decades,” 

Journal of Women’s History, vol. 3, no. 3, Winter 1992, pp. 118-125.

(Survey of Polish research/publications over the period 1970-89. Much has been done since that date, but the publication record is still rather slim in comparison with western research and publications in the field of women’s history.) 

Renata Siemienska, “Dialogue: Polish Women and Polish Politics since World War II, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring) 1991, pp. 108-125.

(The author documents women’s negligible role in Polish politics.)


Sub-Periods in The History of Communist Poland


f. Poland,1943-1956:The Stalinist Period.


(i). How the Communists seized power in Poland:


Arthur Bliss Lane, I SAW POLAND BETRAYED. An American Ambassador Reports to the American People, Indianapolis, Ind., 1948

Lane was the U.S. ambassador in Poland in the immediate postwar period.


Krystyna Kersten, The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943-1948, Berkeley, Ca., 1991.

Excellent study, based onPolish archival sources by a prominent, contemporary Polish historian, first published in the underground, 1984.


Stefan Korbonski, WARSAW IN CHAINS, New York, 1959, 

Work by the Head of Civilian Resistance and last Polish Government Delegate in German- occupied Poland, who later settled in U.S.Korbonski (1901-1989), a Peasant Party leader, escaped from communist Poland in late1947,settled in U.S. and lived in Washington. (See his book: Guide to the Polish Underground State, Pt. II of this Bibliography). This book, written in diary form, tells the author’s experiences in Poland in the period July 15, 1945 - Nov. 14, 1947, when he escaped to Sweden.


Same, WARSAW IN EXILE,New York, 1966-

-story of author’s life ending with his escape to Sweden and emigration to U.S.. 

Stanislaw Mikolajczyk,THE RAPE OF POLAND: The Pattern of Soviet Aggression, New York, 1948.

S. Mikolajczyk (1901-1966), was a Polish Peasant Party leader and Premier in exile, 1943-44, then a deputy Premier, Poland, 1945-48. After escaping from communist Poland in late 1947 he settled in U.S; the book was written and published a year later. In September 1999, his remains and those of his wife, were re-buried in Poznan. The S. Mikolajczyk Papers are now in the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA. (See also Rozek, below).

Edward J. Rozek, Allied Wartime Diplomacy. A Pattern in Poland, Chicago, 1958, reprint, Boulder, CO.,1989.

Ch.7, 8 deal with the establishment of communist power in Poland from summer 1944 through October 1947. They are based mostly on the S.Mikolajczyk Papers, made available to the author in the 1950s and now part of Polish government documents held in the Hoover Archives, Stanford, CA.. Rozek, b.Poland 1920, d. 2009 in U..S., served in the Polish Armed Forces in WW II, came to U.S. 1948, and obtained a Ph.D. at Harvard, 1956. He was for 30 years Director of the Institute for the Study of Economic and Political Freedom, also the Slavic Studies Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. He saw the USSR as a great threat to freedom everywhere.

(ii). Soviet Policy on Poland 1945-56.


Andrzej Werblan, “The Conversation between Wladyslaw Gomulka and Jozef Stalin on 14 November 1945,” Cold War International History Project, BULLETIN, issue 11, Winter 1998, pp.134-140. (NOTE: The date of Gomulka’s death, p. 140, note 1, should be 1982, not 1966).

(The first document is Gomulka’s memo on the conversation, Nov. 14, 1945, noting Stalin’s statements but omitting his own; the second is the Russian record of the same conversation, which took place between Stalin, Gomulka and Hilary Minc. Gomulka was then head of the Polish Workers’ Party, and Minc was in charge of the state economy.)


Krzysztof Persak, “Stalin as Editor: The Soviet Dictator’s Secret Changes to the Polish Constitution of 1952,” CWIHP BULLETIN, issue 11, winter 1998, pp. 149-154.

(This is the Russian language-draft of the P. constitution of 1952, with Stalin’s personal corrections. Persak is a Polish historian working at the Institute of National Memory (IPN) and the Institute of Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences (ISPPAN), Warsaw.)


(iii). Building the Polish Communist Party State.


Andrzej Paczkowski, “Building the One Party-State,” in: Stalinism in Poland 1944-1956, edited by A. Kemp Welch, (London, New York, 1999, pp. 41-58.)

(Analytical account by the foremost historian of Communist Poland. Paczkowski, b.1938, is the author of numerousl books, also editor of Russian and Polish documents on the communist period. He is Professor of History at the Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw and in the IPN; he was a Woodrow Wilson scholar, Washington, D.C., 2000-01.)

(iv). Polish Peasant resistance to collectivization.


Dariusz Jarosz, “Polish Peasant versus Stalinism,” in Kemp Welch, ed., Stalinism in Poland, pp. 59-77.

(This account is based mostly on the archives of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party. The author concludes that “Peasant behaviour towards the communist agrarian policy was one of the basic causes which led to the collapse of Stalinism in Poland.” (P.77). Jarosz, author of several works on Polish peasants in the early communist period, was then teaching history at the University of Warsaw.)


(v). Stalinist Terror in Poland.

Krystyna Kersten, “The Terror, 1949-1954,” in Stalinism in Poland, pp. 78-98.

(brief account of the worst years of communist terror in Poland. Kersten, then a Professor of History in the History Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, is the author of many works on wartime and postwar Poland; her best known work in the West is: The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943-1948, (Berkeley, CA. 1991.)


(vi). The Deportation of Germans from Poland after WWII.


Alfred Zayas, NEMESIS AT POTSDAM. The Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans. Background, Execution, Consequences, (London, 1977, reprints 1979, 1989).

(Uniformly negative on Polish treatment of the Germans in Poland before the war and especially during their deportation from the new Polish western territories after the war.  For a short review,, see: Cienciala, Military Affairs, vol. 45, no. 1, 1981, p. 51; for more detail, see: Walter Drzewieniecki, Quarterly of The Polish Western Association of America, vo. XIX, no. 3/4, Chicago, December 1978, pp.9-14.

In 1979, Zayas was head of a research team at the Institute of Public International Law, University of Gottingen, Germany. He also authored a book on the expulsion of Germans from E. Europe 1994.


NOTE: Forced deportation is a violation of human rights, but we must bear in mind that the Germans had expelled over a million Poles from western Poland -- then annexed to the Reich-- to German-occupied central Poland (General Gouvernement) in 1939-40; They also deported about two million for forced labor in Germany; imposed a ruthless occupation in which 3 million Polish Jews and almost three million ethnic Poles lost their lives; and finally, that about two million Poles expelled from former eastern Poland, annexed by the USSR were resettled in former German territories, where they were joined by about three million Poles from other parts of Poland..)

Stanislaw Schimitzek. Truth or Conjecture? German Civilian Losses in the East, (Poznan, 1966).

(Analyzes and rejects postwar West German claims to German loss of life in the last stages of the war and in the deportations. Written by a former Polish diplomat, specialist on Germany.) 


(vii). Polish-Americans’ support of the Oder-Neisse Line as the Polish western frontier.


Debra Allen, “An Unacknowledged Consensus: Polish American Views About the Oder-Neisse Line During the Truman Administration,” Polish American Studies, vol. LVII no. 1, Spring 2000, pp. 73-83.

(Debra Allen was then Assoc. Professor of History, Concordia University, Austin, TX., and working on a book dealing with American foreign policy on the Oder-Neisse Line.)


(viii). Biographies of Polish Communist and other leaders.


[Lord] Nicholas W. Bethell, Gomulka, His Poland, and His Communism, rev. ed., (Harmondsworth, England, 1972).

By a British writer favorably disposed to his subject. Wladyslaw Gomulka (1905-1982). Gomulka was a minor, prewar communist, who survived the Stalin purges of Polish communists in the USSR because he was in a Polish prison at the time. He was head of the Polish Workers’ Party, 1943-48; was arrested and imprisoned, 1951-55 on charges of “nationalist deviation;” was head of Polish United Workers’ Party, Oct.1956 - Dec. 1970, when he authorized the use of force against striking Polish shipyard workers in Gdansk, Gdynia and Szczecin. Resigned Dec. 1970. Author of Polish- lang. memoirs.) 


Lucjan Blit, THE EASTERN PRETENDER. Boleslaw Piasecki: His Life and Times, (London, 1965).

(B.Piasecki, 1915-1979, was the prewar leader of an extreme right-wing faction of the National Democractic Party. During the war, he led a right- wing underground organization resisting the Germans in World War II. He cooperated with Soviet intelligence at war's end; developed a Catholic business enterprise, then press, "Pax" (peace), which was allowed to publish some non-conformist literature and history. L. Blit d. 1978 (?) was a Polish scholar who settled in Britain and wrote several books on Polish socialism and communism.).


(ix) Interviews with leading Polish Communists of the 1945-56 period:


Teresa Toranska, THEM. Stalin's Polish Puppets, trans. by Agnieszka Kolakowska, Harper & Row, (New York, 1987).

(Toranska, a brilliant journalist, interviewed key Polish Communists who were in power 1945-56. These interviews,conducted during the Solidarity period, 1980-81, provide some fascinating insights into the mentality of prominent Polish communists active in the period 1945-56.)

(x). Literary Works on Communist Poland.


Czeslaw Milosz, The Captive Mind, (London, 1953 and reprints).

(Classic political novel on the subjection of Polish writers to Communist dictates, and their reactions. Milosz, 1911-2004, is a prominent Polish poet who first cooperated with the communist regime, but soon deserted it. He settled in the U.S and taught P. literature for many years at the University of California, Berkeley, authoring a history of Polish literature. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1980, returned to Poland after the fall of communism, and resided in Krakow. 


(xi). Polish Social-Labor History 1945-50.


Padraic Kenney, Rebuilding Poland: Workers and Communists, 1945-1950, (Ithaca, N.Y., 1997).

(A pioneering study based on a broad survey of records, including memoirs. Kenney, who combines historical, political science and sociological expertise, then taught in the Dept. of History, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, but moved to Indiana University, Bloomington, IN., in 2008.).


(xii). Polish Foreign Policy; U.S.-Polish Relations, 1945-56.


Richard C. Lukas, BITTER LEGACY. Polish-American Relations in the Wake of World War II, (Lexington, KY., 1982).

(This is a detailed study of the period from the Potsdam Conference of uly-August 1945 to the rigged Polish elections of January 1947, which gave “victory” to the communist-led coalition bloc. Lukas, b. U.S.,1937, the author of a book on the Holocaust in Poland (see Pt. II of this bibliography), was then professor of History at the Tennessee Technological University.).


Piotr S. Wandycz, “Adam Rapacki and the Search for European Security,” ch. 10, in: Gordon A. Craig and Francis L. Loewenheim eds., THE DIPLOMATS 1939-1979, (Princeton, N.J., 1994), pp. 289 - 317.(Sequel to Gordon Craig and Felix Gilbert, The Diplomats, 1919-1939, Princeton, N.J., 1953, reprinted 1994).

(Adam Rapacki, 1909-1970, was Polish Foreign Minister 1956-68;he resigne in 1968 in protest against the anti-Semitic campaign of that time. Although his plan, proposed in 1957-58, was approved by Moscow, the proposal to create a nuclear free Central Europe reflected a genuine Polish security interest in a disarmed, neutral Germany. Wandycz, b. Poland,1923, is the pre-eminent American historian of Poland, and emeritus professor of History at Yale University.)


same, The United States and Poland, (Cambridge, Mass., 1980), ch.6, “In the Shadow of Stalinism and the Cold War,” pp. 307-358.

(this chapter deals with the period 1945-1957.)


(xiii) The Polish October, 1956.

(a). Studies.


Andrzej Korbonski, "October 1956: Crisis of Legitimacy or Palace Revolution? in: Jane Leftwich Curry and Luba Fajfer eds., POLAND'S PERMANENT REVOLUTION. People vs. Elites, 1956-1990,(Washington, 1996), pp. 17-54.

(Analysis by an American political scientist of Polish origin, b. 1927, author of a classical study of the politics of socialist agriculture in post WW II Poland. Korbonski taught for many years at the University of Los Angeles, CA.)


Flora A. Lewis, A Case History of Hope: The Story of Poland's Peaceful Revolution, (New York, Doublday, 1958 

( good contemporary account and analysis by an American journalist.)

Pawel Machcewicz, “Social Protest and Political Crisis in 1956,” in Kemp -Welch, ed., Stalinism in Poland, (London, New York, 1999(, pp. 99-118.

(The author shows that “instead of destroying the political system, social protest in Poland was absorbed within it.”p..117. This was mainly due to the popular image of Gomulka as a nationalist and anti-Soviet reformer, so the support he enjoyed legitimized communist rule in Poland. (ibid). Later, Gomulka slowed down reforms, re-centralized political power, and showed that while not a stooge of the USSR, he was its loyal ally. Machcewicz was then a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences (ISPPAN), and is now at the IPN,Warsaw. He has published books on Poland in 1956 and on W. Gomulka.) 

Rebellious satellite : Poland, 1956 / Paweł Machcewicz ; translated by Maya Latynski (Stanford University Press, 2009).

(Machcewicz gives a very good account of the worker unrest in Poland and uses security policy records to illustrate the moods and demands of the Polish workers in June-October 1956.).


Peter Raina, ed., Political Opposition in Poland, 1954-1977, (London, 1978), ch. 1-2, pp. 15-57. 

(Documents selected and edited by an Indian specialist on Poland, who has published documentary collections on the political opposition in postwar Poland.)


George Sakwa, "The Polish October: A Reappraisal through historiography," Polish Review, v. XXIII, 1978, no. 3.,pp. 62-78.

(By a British historian of Polish descent; this article covers publications through 1976-77. Sakwa changed his last name to Sanford and teaches at Bristol University, England.)


Anita K. Shelton, "A Bibliographic Essay on National Communism and the Polish October, East European Quarterly, v. 17, no. 3,Fall 1983, pp. 283 ff.

(Covers publications through 1982. Anita Krystyna Shelton is an American historian of Polish descent, specializing in Polish and Czech history.)


Konrad Syrop, Spring in October: The Story of the Polish Revolution in October 1956, (London, 1958).

( contemporary study by a British journalist of Polish origin.)

Janos Tischler, “Polish Leaders and the Hungarian Revolution,” in Kemp Welch, ed.,Stalinism in Poland, (London, New York, 1999), pp. 119-143.

(The author, a Hungarian, discusses the Polish effort to mediate the Hungarian revolution but is unjustifiably harsh on the Polish leader, W. Gomulka, for his stance on it afterwards. Tischler was then a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for the History of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Budapest, and is the author of a Polish language study on the Hungarian Revolution in Polish Documents of the time, published Warsaw, 1995.)


(b)Documents on the Polish October, 1956.


L.W. Gluchowski, ed., "Poland 1956. Khrushchev, Gomulka, and the 'Polish October,'" Cold War History International Project, BULLETIN, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., issue 5, Spring 1995 (pp. 1, 38-49) .

(These protocols and notes of Polish Politburo meetings and P. leaders' talks with Soviet lst Secretary, Nikita S. Khrushchev, Warsaw, October 19-20/21, 1956, are thus far the most detailed account of what was said. Gluchowski is a political scientist specializing in international relations, particularly Poland and Russia; he was then teaching at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., Canada.)


Vojtech Mastny, EAST EUROPEAN DISSENT, vol.1, 1953-1964, New York,1972 (Facts On File. Revolt in Poland, pp.79-98).

(This is a contemporary collection. V. Mastny is an American historian of Czech origin, author of many books and articles, specializing in international relations, also the Czechoslovak Republic and Russia.)


Paul E. Zinner, ed. NATIONAL COMMUNISM AND POPULAR REVOLT IN EASTERN EUROPE. A Selection of Documents on Events in Poland and Hungary, February-November 1956, (New York, 1956), Part Two, Poland, ch. 1-11, pp. 37-316.

(This was the most extensive collection of documents, then available, published in English, but lacks Russian and Polish documents unavailable at the time. On Zinner, see: Documentary Collections on Eastern Europe.)

[NOTE: Gomulka's apparent victory over Khrushchev sparked demonstrations of sympathy for Poland in Budapest, which developed into the Hungarian revolution; see: Hungary 1945-56, Revolution of October 1956].


5. Czechoslovakia, 1968.

a.Detailed studies 

Galia Golan, The Czechoslovak Reform Movement: Communism in Crisis, 1962-1968, (Cambridge, England, 1971). 

(A very detailed study, focusing on the domestic sources of the Prague Spring. G.Golan, a specialist in International Relations,was then teaching at the University of Jerusalem, Israel.)


same, Reform Rule in Czechoslovakia, (Cambridge, England 1973). 


Vladimir V. Kusin, The Intellectual Origins of the Prague Spring, (Cambridge, England, 1971).

(Kusin is a specialist in Czech intellectual history of the period.)

Antonin J. Liehm, ed., THE POLITICS OF CULTURE, Translated by Pet r Kussi (Grove Press, New York, no date, probably 1971 (?))

(Czechoslovak writers speak about literature and theater under communism and in the Prague Spring,1968; also included is an essay by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, "The Socialism that came in from the Cold."

Liehm, b. Prague, 1924, a dissident Czech journalist, interviewed the writers included in this volume during the Prague Spring period. He went on to teach Literature n the U.S.) 


H. Gordon Skilling, Czechoslovakia's Interrupted Revolution,(Princeton, N.J., 1976).

(Detailed study by a Canadian Political Scientists, specialist on Czechoslovakia; died 2000.) 


b. Biographies, Memoirs of Prague Spring.


Alexander Dubcek, Hope Dies Last, trans. & ed. Jiri Hochman, (London, New York, 1993). 

(Alexander Dubcek, 1921-1992, Party leader and key figure of the Prague Spring, dictated his memoirs in 1989-91 to Jiri.Hochman, who participated in the events of 1968. These memoirs are a primary source for the Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact invasion, 1968. 

Hochman, who authored The Soviet Union and the Failureof Collective Security, 1934-1938, Ithaca, N.Y. and London, 1984, taught for a time at Ohio State University, but returned to Prague in 1989.) 


Alexander Dubcek with Andras Sugar, Dubcek Speaks, (London, New York, 1990).

( Interviews granted with Dubcek by a Hungarian journalist.)

William Shawcross, Dubcek,(revised and updated edition, New York, 1990). 

(W. Shawcross, a British author, has written books on the Shah or Iran and on Cambodia. This book came out before Dubcek’s memoirs, see above.)

Zdenek Mlynar, Night Frost in Prague,The End of Humane Socialism, trans. by Paul Wilson, (New York, 1980).

(Memoirs of a former communist. Mlynar, 1930-1997, graduated from Moscow University Law School, where he was a classmate of Mikhail S. Gorbachev. He taught at Charles IV University Prague, cooperated with Dubcek in 1968 and was expelled from the Party in 1970. He was one of the founders of Charter 77, and went into exile in Austria in 1977, where he taught at the Institute for Inernational Politics and whence he continued to support Czech dissidents. He returned to Prague after the collapse of Communism and tried but failed to re-enter politics. Later, he divided his time between Prague and Austria, see obituary, New York Times, April 20, 1997, Y-22.).


c. The Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia August 1968.


(i) Studies.


E.J. Czerwinski and Jaroslaw Piekalkiewicz ed., The Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia and its Effects on Eastern Europe, (New York, 1972, 2nd printing, 1973).

(Valuable study covering Czechoslovak public opinion in the Dubcek era by J.Piekalkiewicz, b. Poland, 1926, now emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS.,who was in Czechoslovakia at the time. The book covers Czech literature in 1968 -- see also Liehm book below -- the crisis of the European Left; reactions to the invasion in other E. European countries, and a study of its effects on theater and drama in Eastern Europ by Edward J. Czerwinski, a Polish- American specialist in Polish literature and drama, later Professor emeritus of SUNY at Stony Brook, N.Y.) 


Karen Dawisha, The Kremlin and the Prague Spring, (Berkeley, Ca.,1984). 

(Good study, but somewhat outdated due to availability of Russian documents after 1991. Dawisha, a Political Scientist, then taught at the Center for Russian and Post-Soviet Studies, Miami University, Miami, OH.)


Robert Littel, ed., THE CZECH BLACK BOOK. An Eyewitness Account of the Invasion of Czechoslovakia. Prepared by the Institute of History, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, (New York, 1969).

(Robert Littel, then a general editor for Newsweek, brought a copy of the original work from Czechoslovakia to the West, edited the translation and wrote an introduction.)

Jiri Valenta, Soviet Intervention in Czechoslovakia, 1968;Anatomyof a Decision, Foreword by Alexander Dubcek (2nd edition, Baltimore,1991).  

(This is a revised edition,based on Czech and Russian documents as well as conversations with key players, of a book first published in 1979. Jiri Valenta, an American Political Scientist of Czech origin, was then teaching in the U.S. He is not to be confused with his namesake in Prague, Prof. Jiri Valenta, a specialist in the history of Polish-Czechoslovak relations.) 


(ii) Documents on the Prague Spring and Invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968.

Paul Ello, ed., Czechoslovakia's Blueprint for Freedom,(Washington, D.C.,1968). 

(Introduction and text of the famous document drawn up by Dubcek and his close advisers, published in April 1968, criticizing the Stalinist past and outlining planned reforms.)


Mark T. Kramer, "New Sources on the 1968 Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia," Cold War International History Project, BULLETIN, Fall 1992, p. 1, 4-13 .

(Includes Eng. translation of hard liner Vasil Bilak's letter to L. Brezhnev of Aug. 3, 1968, appealing for Soviet "support and assistance" p. 35. Kramer is the head of the Harvard Project for Cold War Sudies and a frequent contributor to the CWIHP Bulletin.


same author, subject, Part 2, BULLETIN, issue 3, fall 1993,(pp. 2-13, 54-55); 


Vojtech Mastny, ed., Czechoslovakia: Crisis in World Communism, (New York, 1972).

(A good, contemporary study. V. Mastny, is an American historian of Czech descent, who has published widely on Czechoslovakia and USSR.)

J aromir Navratil et al. eds., THE PRAGUE SPRING 1968. A National Security Archive Documents Reader, Preface by Vaclav Havel, Foreword by H. Gordon Skilling, (Budapest, 1998).

(This is the most important documentary collection on the subject, consisting of Czechoslovak and Russian documents.

Note also Alexander Dubcek’s memoirs: Hope Dies Last .These memoirs weredictated many years later, but Dubcek’s account of his conversations with Russian leaders is also a document. 

J. Navratil is a Czech historian, a specialist on the Prague Spring. Vaclav Havel, b.1936, a prominent playwright, writer, and most famous Czech dissident in the pre-1989, was President of Czechoslovakia, then the Czech Republic, 1989-2002)..

Robin A. Remington, ed., Winter in Prague: Documents on Czechoslovak Communism in Crisis, (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

(This documentary collection has been largely superceded by the Navratil work, but is still worth reading. R.Remington, a political scientist, specializes in International Relations, Russia and Yugoslavia; she taught for many yers in the Dept. of Political Science, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.) 


Andrew Oxley et al, eds., CZECHOSLOVAKIA. THE PARTY AND THE PEOPLE, (New York, 1973).

(Articles, speeches, from the Prague Spring. )

II. Communist East Central Europe 1968-81.

Surveys (first see works listed in section I, 1. Surveys).


Olga Narkiewicz, EASTERN EUROPE 1968-1984, (Totowa, N.J., 1986).

(Emphasis on economics. Narkiewicz was then teaching at the University of London.)


Rudolf Tokes, ed., Opposition in Eastern Europe, (Baltimore and London, 1979).

(Tokes was then professor of Political Science at the University of Connecticut. The book has very useful coverage of opposition movments in the years 1968-78).

A. Poland, 1956-81.


1.Analytical studies of Polish crises, 1956-90.

Jane Leftwich Curry and Luba Fajfer, POLAND'S PERMANENT REVOLUTION. Peoples vs. Elites, 1956-1990, (Washington D.C., 1996).

(Chapters by specialists on October 1956, December 1970, June 1976, Solidarity 1980-81, and finally the collapse of communism in1989. Jane Leftwich Curry, an American political scientist, has published many works on Communist Poland; she teaches at Santa Clara University, CA. Luba Fajfer was then a graduate student, also editor and publisher, at the Center for Russian and East European Studies, UCLA )


Andrzej Szczypiorski, THE POLISH ORDEAL. The View from Within, (London, 1982).

(A Polish intellectual, writer, d. 2000, recounts and interprets Polish history since 1918.)


2. The Polish Economy, 1956-81.

Anders Aslund, Private Enterprize in Eastern Europe: the non-agricultural private sector in Poland and the GDR, 1945-83, (London, 1985).

(By a Scandinavian expert on the economics of Eastern Europe.)


Wojciech Charemza, Miroslaw Gronicki, Plans and Disequilibrium in a Centrally Planned Economy; Empirical Investigation for Poland, (Amsterdam, Warsaw, 1988).

(An objective study by two Polish economists).


Richard J. Hunter, Leo V.Ryan, From Autarchy to Market: Polish Economics and Politics, 1945-1995, (Westport,CT., 1998).

(A political-economic- historical study; R.J. Hunter teaches in the Dept. of Finance & Legal Studies, Seton Hall University, S. Orange, N.J. Leo V. Ryan is prof. em. of Management, Kellstadt Graduate School of Business, DePaul Universit..)

Zbigniew Landau and Jerzy Tomaszewski, The Polish Economy in the Twentieth Century, (New York, 1985).

(V. good study by two prominent Polish historians, though written under some political constraints.)


John M. Montias, Central Planning in Poland, (New Haven, 1962).

(Contemporary study by an American economist.)


3.The Background to Poland’s Solidarity, 1976-80.


Michael H. Bernhard, The Origins of Democratiziation in Poland. Workers, Intellectuals and Oppositional Politics, 1976-1980, (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1993).

(Insightful,clearly presented analytical survey. Bernhard is a political scientist specializing in Poland and Germany. He was then teaching at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA..) 


Abraham Brumberg, ed., Poland. Genesis of a Revolution, (New York, 1983).

(Insightful articles on various aspects. Brumberg, 1926-2008, was born in Tel Aviv, lived in Poland 1939-41 -- where he imbibed the Yiddish language and culture -- and immigrated to the U.S. from Vilnius via Japan and other locations. He was a political scientiest, an editor, publisher, and author specializing in Poland and Russia; he lived in Chevy Chase, Md. Obituary: New York Times, Feb. 7, 2008). 


Luba Fajfer, "December 1970: Prelude to Solidarity,"in L. Fajfer amd J.Leftwich Curry, POLAND'S PERMANENT REVOLUTION, (Washington, 1996), pp.55-108.

(L.Fajfer was then at the Center for Russian and East European Studes, UCLA.)


Padraic Kenney, “The Gender of Resistance in Communist Poland,” American Historical Review, vol. 104, no. 2, April 1999, pp. 399-425.

(The article covers the period 1956-83, with most coverage on the pre-Solidarity period, pp. 399-417.. The author writes that Polish women contributed greatly to the fall of Communism in Poland, but admits they were not gender conscious, also that what mattered most to them was an improvement in economic conditions, especially food supplies, and they saw their role as supporting their men in the struggle for these goals. Kenney, who studied in Wroclaw,Poland as a grad.student in 1988-89, has published a book on Polish workers in the immediate post WW II period, also on the fall of communism in Poland and a survey of East European history since 1989, now teaches in the History Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. See also the book by Shanna Pennington.).


Keith John Lepak, Prelude to Solidarity. Poland and the Politics of the Gierek Regime, (New York, 1988.)

(Study of Poland’s political system, foreign policy, economy, in the period 1971-80.)

Jan Jozef Lipski, KOR. A History of the Workers' Defense Committee in Poland, 1976-1981, translated by Olga Amsterdamska and Gene M. More ( (Berkeley, L.A., London, 1985).

(The history of KOR by one of its founders. Jan J. Lipski, 1926-1991, was a specialist in Polish literature and a literary critic. A veteran of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, he was a long-time dissident and was “interned” in 1981-82. In 1987-91, he was chair of the Executive Council of the Polish Socialist Party, and in 1989-91 a Senator for “The Solidarity of Labor.”


Adam Michnik, THE CHURCH AND THE LEFT trans. ed. David Ost, (Chicago, 1993).

(By a leading KOR-Solidarity intellectual, first published in Polish and French, Paris,1979). Michnik (b.1946, a dissident since March 1968, and a leader of the Solidarity movement, initiated the “Your President, our Premier” agreement between Solidarity and the Polish communist leadership in summer1989, which led to the first government with a non-communist majority in Eastern Europe headed by former Solidarity member Tadeusz Mazowiecki with General Jaruzelski as president. Michnik is the founder and editor of the Gazeta Wyborcza, a left-off-center daily paper published in Warsaw, and the leading newspaper in Poland today.)


David Ost, SOLIDARITY AND THE POLITICS OF ANTI-POLITICS. Opposition and Reform in Poland since 1968,(Philadelphia, Pa., 1990).

(Excellent study of the subject through August 1989. Obst combines Political Science and Sociology, specializing in Poland, Russia and Slovakia. He then taught Political Science at the Hobart/William Smith Colleges, Geneva, N.Y.) 


Maurice D. Simon and Roger F. Kanet, eds., Background to Crisis: Policy and Politics in Gierek's Poland, (Boulder, Co., 1981).

(A political science study, still useful for the 1970-80 period. Kanet, a Political Scientist, specializes in Russia and Poland; he is an administrator at the University of Illinois, Champaign, IL. Edward Gierek, 1913-2000, was head of the Polish United Workers’ Party from mid- December 1970 to September 1980.)


Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, "June 1976: Anatomy of an Avoidable Crisis," in Fajfer and L.Curry, POLAND'S PERMANENT REVOLUTION, (pp. 109-166).

(Deals with the Polish workers’ revolt against a price increase in 1976. The revolt led to the establishment of KOR, the Committee for the Defense of Workers. Terry, a Political Scientist specializing in Poland, author of the book: Poland’s Place in Europe. General Sikorski and the Origins of the Oder-Neisse Line ,1983, then taught at Tufts University, Medford, MA.)


4.The Solidarity Revolution, Poland 1980-81.

Gregory F. Domber, "The AFL-CIO, The Reagan Administration and Solidarnosc," The Polish Review, vol. LII, no. 3, 2007, pp. 277-304



Timothy Garton Ash, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity, (New York, 1984; revised ed. 1990).

-(Best contemporary account by a British historian and journalist, expert on East Central Europe.)


Nicholas G. Andrews, POLAND 1980-81. Solidarity versus the Party, (Washington, D.C. 1985).

(Detailed account with illustrations, list of personalities, chronology. Andrews is a retired specialist in the economics, political science and history of Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia. He then lived in Chevy Chase, MD.)


Neal Ascherson, THE POLISH AUGUST. The Self-Limiting Revolution, Harmondsworth England, 1981, New York, Penguin,1982).

(Lively account by a British Socialist; but the surveys of the prewar period and World War II tend to reflect the author's political views.)


Idesbald Goddeeris, "Western Trade Unions and Solidarnosc: A Comparison From a Polish Perspective," The Polish Review, vol. LII, no. 3, 2007, pp. 305-329.

(By a Flemish scholar, specialist in Trade Union history).

Jane Leftwich Curry, "The Solidarity Crisis, 1980-81: The Near Death of Communism," in: Curry and Fajfer POLAND'S PERMANENT REVOLUTION, (Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 167-210.

(Jane Leftwich Curry, a political scientist specializing in Poland, then taught at the University of Santa Clara, CA.)


THE DAYS OF SOLIDARITY, translated by Barbara Herchenreder, (Karta, Warsaw, 2000).

(Illustrated, day-by-day account based on documents from the archives of the Polish United Workers’ Party and Ministry of Interior, oral interviews and memoirs, of the events in Gdansk between Aug. 14 and 31, 1980. These are followed by comments made 20 years later by strike leader Lech Walesa, strike organizer Bogdan Borusiewicz; member of the Inter-factory strike committee board Bogdan Lis; another member of the same, and a woman strike leader in Gdansk, Alina Pienkowska.)


Lawrence Goodwyn, Breaking the Barrier. The Rise of Solidarity in Poland, (NewYork, Oxford, 1991).

(A controversial study by an American sociologist who denies any role for Polish dissident intellectuals in the rise of Solidarity, claiming it originated and developed solely as a workers’ movement; see also R. Laba below.)

Jan Kubik, THE POWER OF SYMBOLS AGAINST THE SYMBOLS OF POWER, The Rise of Solidarity and the Fall of State Socialism in Poland, (University Park, Pa.,1994).

(n the use of language and visual symbols by both sides. Jan Kubik, a political scientist of Polish descent, teaches at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.) 


Roman Laba, The Roots of Solidarity. A Political Sociology of Poland's Working Class Democratization, (Princeton, N.J., 1991).

(The author denies the leading role of intellectuals in the origins of the movement, but acknowledges that the KOR --Committee for Defense of Workers -- was important. For a more extreme view, denying any role to intellectuals, see Lawrence Goodwyn, above.)


Jan Jozef Lipski, KOR. A History of the Workers'Defense Committee in Poland, 1976-1981, translated by Olga Amsterdamska and Gene M. Moore, (Berkeley, Ca.,1985).

(J.J. Lipski, 1926-1991, was a co-founder of KOR, later a Senator in post-communist Poland. He gives a detailed, balanced, account of this seminal organization and its work in training dissident Polish labor leaders.)


David S. Mason, Public Opinion and Political Change in Poland, 1980-1982, (Cambridge, England, 1985.)

(By an American political scientist. The work is based on Polish opinion polls and a wide range of secondary sources. Mason then taughts in the Political Science Department, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN.)


David Ost, SOLIDARITY AND THE POLITICS OF ANTI-POLITICS. Opposition and Reform in Poland since 1968, (Philadelphia, Pa., 1990).

(Excellent account by a political scientist who then taught at Hobart/William Smith Colleges, Geneva, N.Y.)

Andrzej Paczkowski and Malcolm Byrne, eds., From Solidarity to Martial Law: The Polish Crisis of 1980-1981: A Documentary History, Foreword, Lech Walesa, (Budapest, 2007).

(See review by Arista Maria Cirtautas in Slavic Review, vol. 67, no. 2, summer 2008, pp. 456-458.)

Shanna Penn, Solidarity’s Secret: The Women Who Defeated Communism in Poland, (Ann Arbor, MI, 2005).

(:Lively reading based on author's interviews with women who carried on the publication and distribution of underground papers, also helped hide the men pursued by Polish security police. She found that they were not feminists but saw themselves as continuing the Polish tradition of women's work in underground resistance, e.g. under the German occupation in WWII..

See review by Michael Bernhard in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 1, spring 2007, pp. 124-125, or the online review by Padraic Kenney, “A Solidarity Still Unexamined,” HABSBURG, H-Net Reviews, October 2007, URL

Kevin Ruane, THE POLISH CHALLENGE, (London 1982).

(Day by day account by a member of the British Broadcasting Corporation.).

George Sanford, POLISH COMMUNISM IN CRISIS, (London, New York, 1983).

(Critical account of the Solidarity period by a British political scientist, specialist on Poland, of Polish descent. His former last name was Sakwa) 

Jadwiga Staniszkis, Poland's Self-LimitingRevolution, (Princeton, N.J., 1984).

(By a prominent Polish sociologist, who was an adviser to Solidarity.)


Alain Touraine, Francois Dubet, Michel Wiewiorka & Jan Strzelecki, SOLIDARITY. The Analysis of a Social Movement. Poland 1980-81, (Paris, 1982, trans. David Denby,Cambridge, England, 1983).

(A contemporary sociological study by French and French-Polish authors.)


Lawrence Weschler, SOLIDARITY. Poland in the Season of its Passion, (New York, 1982) 

(First hand, sympathetic observations by an American journalist who knows Poland well).


Lech Walesa, A WAY OF HOPE. An Autobiography, (New York 1987).

(Trans. of original French edition: Un Chemin d'Espoir; interesting but somewhat disappointing.)


THE BOOK OF LECH WALESA., Introduced by Neal Ascherson, (New York, 1982).

(Articles by friends and admirers.)


J.B. de Weydenthal, et al., AUGUST 1980. THE STRIKES IN POLAND, (Munich, Radio Free Europe, October 1980.)

(Day by day reports, analyses, with biographies of 8 leading personalities and some hard to find documents. The author, a political scientist and journalist of Polish origin, worked at that time in the Polish Section of Radio Free Europe. He is the author of a history of Polish communist parties.)


Jean Woodall, ed., POLICY AND POLITICS IN CONTEMPORARY POLAND. Reform, Failure, and Crisis, (London, 1982). 

(Contemporary, analytical articles by British and Polish experts. Woodall is an American sociologist, a specialist on Poland at this time.)


5.The Polish United Workers’ Party: Demands for Reform and the Crisis of 1980-81.


Werner G. Hahn, DEMOCRACY IN A COMMUNIST PARTY.Poland's Experience since 1980, (New York, 1987).

(Excellent study of the topic; ch. 1-4 cover the period up to the decision to impose martial law, Dec. 1981. The book is based on Polish and other sources available at the time. Hahn, b.1961, was then a Researcher in the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Reston, VA.)

6. Solidarity: Writers, Poets, Philosophers.


Kazimierz Brandys, A WARSAW DIARY, 1978-1981, trans. Richard Lourie, (New York, 1983).

(By one of Poland’s foremost dissident writers of the time; d. 2000.)


SOLIDARITY AND SOLITUDE. Essays by Adam Zagajewski, (New York, 1990).

(A leading Polish poet analyses his reactions to, thoughts on Solidarity.)


Jozef Tischner, THE SPIRIT OF SOLIDARITY,(San Francisco, 1984).

(By a Catholic priest, well known philosopher, supporter of Solidarity, d.2000.) 


7. American and Soviet reactions to Solidarity


Sidney L. Ploss, MOSCOW AND THE POLISH CRISIS. An Interpretation of Soviet Policies and Intentions, (Westport, Ct., 1986).

(Good survey citing Soviet press from August 1980 to Dec. 13, 1981, but somewhat outdated by Russian documents available after 1991, see section 9, documents, below. Ploss, a political scientist and author of works on Soviet decision-making and political process, was then a senior Soviet analyst in the State Department )


Arthur R. Rachwald, IN SEARCH OF POLAND. The Superpowers' Response to Solidarity, 1980-1989, (Stanford, Ca., 1990).

(Good overview of the topic. At the time of publication, Rachwald was professor of Political Science at the U.S. Naval Academy.)


8. General Wojciech Jaruzelski and Martial Law, December 12-13.1981 - 1982.


Werner G. Hahn, DEMOCRACY IN A COMMUNIST PARTY.Poland's Experience since 1980, (New York,1987).

(Excellent, analytical, account. Ch. 5-7 deal with the decision to impose Martial Law, its imposition, then “normalization,"ending Martial Law summer 1982.The book was based on published sources available at the time, but new source material became accessible after the collapse of Communism. In 1997, Hahn was working in the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Reston, VA.)


Jan Mur, A PRISONER OF MARTIAL LAW. Poland, 1981-1982, (New York, 1984). 

(Journal of an imprisoned Solidarity activist from Gdansk, published under a pseudonym.)


POLAND UNDER JARUZELSKI,Part I. Survey. A Journal of East & West Studies, vol. 26, no. 3, (116), summer 1982 (1983).

(Articles, by Polish authors and Timothy Garton Ash; Part II was published 1983.  All the articles were reprinted later in book form, same title, by Scribner’s, New York, 1984.)


POLAND UNDER MARTIAL LAW. A Report on Human Rights by the Polish Helsinki Watch Committee,. New Yorl. 1983.

(First published underground in Warsaw).


9. Documents on Polish Political Opposition. 1954-80, Solidarity and USSR

Peter Raina, ed., Political Opposition in Poland, 1954-1977, (London, 1978).

(Raina is an Indian specialist on Poland.)


(Same, ed., Independent Social Movements in Poland, (London, 1981).

(Covers the period from 1976 through end August 1980.)


A. Kemp-Welch, trans., introduction, THE BIRTH OF SOLIDARITY. The Gdansk Negotiations, 1980, (New York, 1983).

(Includes profiles of leading personalities. Kemp-Welch is a British specialist on Poland.)


same, ed..,Poland 1981.Towards Social Renewal, (London, 1985).

(A study of the period from end Aug. 1980 to Martial Law, Dec. 13, 1981.) 


“New Evidence on the Polish Crisis 1980-1981,” Cold War International History Project, BULLETIN, issue 11, (Washington, Winter 1998), pp. 3-133.

(Documents and papers discussed at an international conference held at Jachranka, just outside Warsaw, edited by experts. These sources deal with Soviet, Polish, Hungarian, Czech and Bulgarian government attitudes towards the crisis. This issue also contains new evidence on Poland in the Early Cold War; the Sino-American rapprochement of 1968-69; new evidence on the Korean War, and new evidence on the Berlin Crisis of 1958-62. There are alsoresearch notes and conference reports on other topics).


Soviet Deliberations During the Polish Crisis, 1980-1981, Edited, Translated, and Introduced by Mark Kramer. Special Working Paper no. 1, Cold War International History Project, (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., April 1999).

(Texts of Soviet Politburo Protocols of meetings 3 September 1980 - 10 December 1981. The collection contains records of 21 Politburo meetings and the 1981 annual report. They show Soviet fears and proposals for crushing Solidarity, also pressure on Polish party leaders. Mark Kramer heads the Cold War Project on Russia and E.Europe at Harvard University.) 

B. Eastern Europe 1982-88


Derek H. Aldcroft and Steven Morewood, Economic Change in Eastern Europe since 1918, (Aldershot, England and Brookfield, VT.,1995), ch.9, 10: The Road to Revolution, An Uncertain Fate, pp. 177-236.

(D.H.Aldcroft was then a Research Professor in Economic History at Manchester Metropolitan University, and S. Morewood was Lecturer in Economic History, University of Birmigham. They provide valuable economic input into the study of the East European revolutions of 1989.)

J.F. Brown, Eastern Europe and Communist Rule, (Durham, N.C., and London, 1988).

(Brown is an American political scientist specializing in E.Europe. He was for many years Director and Research Director of Radio Free Europe. The book covers all of E. Europe, by country, from 1944-45 through mid-1987.) 

Timothy Garton Ash, The Uses of Adversity. Essays on East Central Europe, (New York, 1988, 1991). 

(Fascinating, first hand accounts by a British expert on the region with vital background for collapse of Communist regimes, 1989; revised and updated edition, 1991.)

Sabrina P. Ramet, Social Currents in Eastern Europe. The Sources and Meaning of the Great Transformation, (Duke N.C. and London, 1991).

(Ramet, an expert on the Balkans, then taught at the Jackson School of International Studies,University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. The book has very useful chapters on: I. Social Currents and Social Change; II. Dissent and Parallel Society in the 1980s; III. Religious and Ethnic Currents; IV A New Generation. The last chapter: V, Current Trends, is a contemporary analysis of all the countries during the collapse of communism.)

H. Gordon Skilling, Samizdat and an Independent Society inCentral and Eastern Europe, (Columbus, OH, 1989).

(Excellent account of the underground press and dissidents by a Canadian political scientist, long-time expert on the region, especially Czechoslovakia.)


1. Poland, 1982-88


Stanislaw Baranczak, Breathing under Water and other East European Essays, (Cambridge, Mass., and London, England, 1990), pp.43-47.

(Baranczak, b. Poland, 1946,is a prominent Polish poet and translator of Polish poetry into English, who then held the Chair of Polish Literature at Harvard University.)


Grzegorz Ekiert, The State Against Society: Political Crises and Their Aftermath in East Central Europe, (Princeton, N.J., 1996.)

(Discusses Hungary 1956, Czechoslovakia 1968, and Poland 1980-89. Ekiert, b. 1956,, was then professor of Government at Harvard University.)

George Kolankiewicz and Paul G. Lewis, POLAND. Politics, Economics and Society, (London, New York, 1988).

(A picture of Poland on the eve of revolutionary change. Kolankiewicz, a sociologist, was then teaching at the University of Essex, England; Lewis, a specialist on the Polish United Workers’ Party, was then a Senior Lecturer at the Open University, England.) 


Maciej Lopienski,Marcin Moskit and Mariusz Wilk, KONSPIRA. Solidarity Underground, translated by Lawrence Weschler,(Berkeley, L.A., Oxford, 1990).

(The authors, Polish journalists, show how hidden Solidarity leaders continued their opposition in the Poland of Jaruzelski; Marcin Moskit is a pseudonym for Zbigniew Gach; Weschler is an American journalist, specialist on Solidarity.)


Adam Michnik, LETTERS FROM PRISON and other Essays, ed., trans,. Maya Latynski, foreword by Czeslaw Milosz, (Berkeley, Ca., 1985).

(Michnik, b.1946, was a leading KOR-Solidarity dissident in 1976-89; since 1989, he has been the editor of the Gazeta Wyborcza, the leading Polish newspaper published in Warsaw.  See:“On Adam Michnik,” in: Stanislaw Baranczak, Breathing under Water, pp. 43-45, above. Maya Latynski, a scholar of Polish descent, has edited books on E. Europe. Czeslaw Milosz, 1913-2004, was a prominent Polish poet,winner of Nobel Prize for Literature, 1980, who lived for many years in U.S. and taught Polish literature at the U. of California, Berkelry, also wrote a textbook on the subject. He returned to Poland after the fall of communism and lived in Krakow.)


Bronislaw Misztal, ed., POLAND AFTER SOLIDARITY. Social Movements versus the State, (New Brunswick, N.J.. and Oxford, U.K. (Transaction Books, 1985).

(These political science studies include a paper comparing Poland and Hungary. Misztal, a sociologist, was then a visiting professor at Pitzer College, Claremont, CA.)

ON TRIAL IN GDANSK. A Transcript of the Proceedings against Adam Michnik, Bogdan Lis, Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, May-June 1985, trans. Jane Cave and Roman Dumas, A Poland Watch Center Report, (Washington, D.C., 1986).

(On Michnik, see: Letters from Prison, above. Lis was a board member of the Inter-Factory Strike Committee, Gdansk,1980-81. Frasyniuk had been a Solidarity leader in Upper Silesia, then Solidarity National Commission; he went underground in Dec. 1981, was imprisoned in 1985-86 and became a politician in post-communist Poland. Jane Cave has published works on Poland.) 


Bogdan Szajkowski, ed., The Independent Society. (Cardiff, 1988).

(A study of what was later called “the civic society.” Szajkowski is a specialist on Poland working in Britain. He authored: Next to God - Poland; Politics and Religion in Contemporary Poland, London, 1983.)

a. Poland 1982-88 as seen from abroad.


J.L. Black and J.W. Strong,, eds., SISYPHUS AND POLAND.Reflections on Martial Law, (Carleton Series in Soviet and East European Studies, vol. IX, Winnipeg, Canada, 1986).

(Western perceptions of Poland include papers by former U.S. ambassador to Poland, Richard T. Davies; Canadian diplomat Lillian Thomsen Voore; U.S. expert on Soviet foreign policy Paul Marantz, and Harvard historian of the USSR, Richard Pipes.) 

Michael T. Kaufman, MAD DREAMS, SAVING GRACES. POLAND: A Nation in Conspiracy, (New York, 1989).

(Fascinating accounts of Polish conspiracy and resistance by an American author who knew the leading figures.)

b. Polish Social History, 1982-88.

C.M. Hann, A VILLAGE WITHOUT SOLIDARITY. Polish Peasants in Years of Crisis, (New Haven, CT. 1985).

(A Study of village life, economy, religion, by a British scholar.)


John Rensenbrink, POLAND CHALLENGES A DIVIDED WORLD, (Baton Rouge, La., 1988).

(Insightful work by an American political scientist who spent some time in Poland in 1983.) 

Stanislaw Starski, CLASS STRUGGLE IN A CLASSLESS POLAND, (Boston, 1982).

(By a Polish sociologist writing under a pseudonym.)

Janine Wedel, THE PRIVATE POLAND. An Anthropologist's Look at Everyday Life, (New York, Oxford, 1986).

(How the average Pole lived in early 1980's as observed by an American anthropologist who lived there at the time. Wedel then taught at Pittsburgh University.) 

same, ed., THE UNPLANNED SOCIETY. Poland during and after Communism, (New York, 1990).

(On private enterprise, the Church and the rebels.) 


2. Czechoslovakia, 1968-89


a. Studies.


J.F. Brown, Eastern Europe and Communist Rule, (Durham, N.C. 1988), ch. 9, Czechoslovakia, pp. 294-315.

Vladimir Kusin, FROM DUBCEK TO CHARTER 77: a Study in ‘Normalisation’ in Czechoslovakia, 1968-1978, (Edinburgh, Scotland, 1978).

( Kusin is a specialist in Czech intellectual history; see his book: The Intellectual Origins of the Prague Spring, Cambridge, 1971. Normalisation in this context means repression.) 

Timothy Garton Ash, "Czechoslovakia under the Ice," in same: THE USES OF ADVERSITY. Essays on the Fate of Central Europe, (New York, 1989), pp. 61-70; revised, updated edition, 1991).

(An essay on represssive party rule in the 1980s. The author, a British journalist/historian, observed all the countries he writes on close up.The whole book is well worth reading for Eastern Europe in the mid-to late 1980s.)


same, "The Prague Advertisement," Ibid. (1989) pp. 228-241, also pp. 162-169, on Vaclav Havel.


Vaclav Havel et al., THE POWER OF THE POWERLESS.Citizens against the State in Central-Eastern Europe, Preface by editor by John Keane, Introduction by Steven Lukes (Armonk, N.Y.1985).

(Essays by Havel and other Czech dissident writers, written in 1977-80. Havel, b. Prague, 1936, is a playwright and co-founder of “Charter 77.” He led the Czechoslovak "Velvet Revolution" of 1968, was elected President of Czechoslovakia by the parliament in December 1989, and then by the people. After the break up of the country, he was President of the Czech Republic until 2003. The book includes the text of Charter 77 and notes on the Czech contributors.)

Milan Otahal, “Czechoslovakia behind the Iron Curtain (1945-1989),” ch. 15 in: Mikulas Teich, ed., Bohemia in History, (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp.306-323.

(Brief survey by a Czech historian, specialist in modern Czech history.)


H. Gordon Skilling, CHARTER 77 AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA, (London, 1981).

(A key study on the origins and development of the movement by a Canadian specialist on Czechoslovakia.)


same: SAMIZDAT and an Independent Society in Central and Eastern Europe,

(Columbus, Ohio, 1989).

(On the underground press in the region; Part II covers Czechoslovakia.)


Marketa Goetz-Stankiewicz, ed., GOOD-BYE, SAMIZDAT. Twenty Years of Czechoslovak Underground Writing, (Evanston, Ill., 1992). 

(Selections from writings published in the underground. Goetz-Stankiewicz was then professor of Germanic languages at the University of British Columbia. She has published works on the silenced Czech theater and Czech drama.)

b. Documents on Czechoslovakia 1969-88.

Hans-Pieter Rises, ed., SINCE THE PRAGUE SPRING. Charter '77 and the Struggle for Human Rights in Czechoslovakia, (New York, 1979).

(Letters, appeals, declarations.)

Gale Stokes, FROM STALINISM TO PLURALISM. A Documentary History of Eastern Europe since 1945,New York, (Oxford,1991, and 2d ed., 1996).

(Charter 77, January 1, 1977, pp. 163-166; reprint from H. Gordon Skilling, CHARTER 77, pp. 209-212).


3. Hungary, 1956-88.


Ivan T. Berend, "Contemporary Hungary, 1956-1984," and George Barany, "Epilogue, 1985-1990," in: Peter Sugar et al eds., A HISTORY OF HUNGARY, (Bloomington, IN., 1990), pp. 384-405. 


Michael Burawoy and Janos Lukacs, THE RADIANT PAST. Ideology and Reality in Hungary’s Road to Capitalism, (Chicago and London, 1992).

(The authors stress the impact of Marxist ideology on communist Hungary’s economy, and the gap between ideology and reality. M. Burawoy was then professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley; J.Lukacs was a member of the governing board of the State Property Agency of Hungary and executive director of Share-Participation, promoting privatization through employee stock ownership.)

Charles Gati, Hungary and the Soviet Bloc, (Durham, N.C., 1986).

(Excellent study, see especially Hungarian sources on the 1945-47 period and revolution of 1956. Gati is an American expert on Hungary. At that time, he was Professor of Political Science at Union College and Consultant on Eastern Europe to the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. Department of state. He has published several books on communist Hungary and a study of the Revolution of 1956.) 


Miklos Haraszti, Worker in a Workers’ State, (London, 1977).

(The writer spent a year working in a factory and wrote a very negative evaluation of the conditions there. He was arrested and was to be put on trial, but was set free by the government with an eye to western public opinion.)


Same, The Velvet Prison: Artists under State Socialism, (New York, 1987).

(How the state kept writers in line by giving them a privileged life if they conformed to the party line. It should be noted that the freedom of Polish writers increased gradually - though with ups and downs - after 1956, and that of Hungarian writers from 1960 onward.)

Jorg K. Hoensch, A HISTORY OF MODERN HUNGARY. 1867-1994, 2nd edition, translated by Kim Traynor, (London, New York, 1996), ch. 6, Hungary under Kadar, pp. 254-278.

(The late Jorg K. Hoensch was a German historian of Hungary, teaching at the University of the Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany. This is a good, brief survey.)


Janos Kadar. Selected Speeches and Interviews, edited with introductory biography by Laszlo Gurko, (Oxford, 1985). 

(Speeches by and interviews with the long-time leader of the Hungarian communist state, 1956-88.)

Janos Kenedi, DO IT YOURSELF. Hungary’s Hidden Economy, (London, no date, but probably 1981).

(A short guide to private enterprise in Socialist Hungary at this time, written by a left-wing dissident who tells how he managed to build his own house.)


Janos Kornai, Vision and Reality, Market and State: Contradictions and Dilemmas Revisited, (New York, 1990).

(A prominent Hungarian economist compares Hungarian economic policy in 1968-89 with Chinese economic reform policy, 1976-2000. See also Tong, Walder, below.)


Paul Lendvai, HUNGARY. The Art of Survival, translated by Paul Clark, (London, 1988).

(The author, a former Socialist Youth leader, left the country for Vienna after the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and became a journalist and author. For this book, in which he discusses economic reform and small, private enterprise, he was able to interview both Janos Kadar and his successor as party leader, Karoly Grosz.)


Ivan Szelenyi, SOCIALIST ENTREPRENEURS. Embourgeoisement in Rural Hungary, (Madison, WI., 1988).

(Szelenyi, then Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the Graduate School, City University of New York, shows how Hungarian peasant farmers managed to develop their own ways of farming within a socialist framework. The author, who was born in Hungary and did valuable research on rural life there, left the country in 1975 for political reasons but was allowed to conduct his research there in the 1980s.) 


Rudolf F. Tokes, Hungary’s Negotiated Revolution. Economic reform, Social change and Political Succession 1957-1990, (Cambridge, England, 1996).

(This is the most detailed English-language study of Hungary in the period between the crushing of the Hungarian revolution and the collapse of communism. The book is organized thematically with chronological accounts in each area: Part I, Systemic change, adaptation and transformation; Part II. Elite politics: the insurgents and the incumbents; Part III, From postcommunism to democracy. Tokes was then Professor of Political Science at the University of Connecticut.)


Yanqui Tong, Transitions from State Socialism: Economic and Political Change in Hungary and China, (Lanham, MD. 1997.)

(Compares Hungarian economic policies, especially in 1976-89 with Chinese economic reform policies, 1976-2000. Compare him with Janos Kornai above, and Walder below.)

Andrew G. Walder, ed., The Waning of the Communist State: Economic Origins of Political Decline in China and Hungary, (Berkeley, CA., 1995). .

C. THE FALL OF COMMUNISM IN EASTERN EUROPE, 1989-90 and the Aftermath. 


1. General.


Timothy Garton Ash, The Magic Lantern. The Revolution of ‘89 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest, Berlin and Prague, (New York, 1990).

(First hand account by an English historian and journalist, specialist on Central Europe, who witnessed the events in each capital.)


Ivo Banac, ed., EASTERN EUROPE IN REVOLUTION, (Ithaca and London, 1992).

(The book has chapters by specialists on Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania, with overview chapters on the Leninist Legacy and the Social and Political Landscape of Central Europe in fall 1990. Notes on contributors pp. 243-44. Banac was then Professor of History at Yale University, whre he held one of two chairs on the history of Eastern Europe. He is a specialist in the history of the lands of former Yugoslavia. The book was completed in May 1991.) 


J.F. Brown, The Surge to Freedom.The End of Communist rule in Eastern Europe, (Durham N.C. and London, 1991).

(Chapters on each country by an American specialist; the book was completed in June 1990.)


Zbigniew Brzezinski, THE GRAND FAILURE. The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century, (New York, 1989).

(Brzezinski, b. Poland, 1928, a well known American political scientist and prolific author, was National Security Adviser to President Jimmy Carter. In this book, completed in August 1988, he outlined the history of communism and predicted its impending demise.)

Ralf Dahrendorf, Reflections on the Revolution in Europe, In a Letter Intended to Have Been Sent to a Gentleman in Warsaw, (New York, 1990).

(Sir Ralph.Dahrendorf, 1923-2009, was in 1990, the Warden of St.Antony’s College, Oxford. He was formerly a member of the West German parliament and a minister in W. Germany, who served for four yearsas as Commissioner of the European Community in Brussels before coming to Gt.Britain, where he become director of the London School of Economics, and then settled in Oxford. These are his reflections on the East Central European revolutions of 1989, with comments on interpretations by western scholars, along with some current advice and predictions for the future. 

Note the valuable reference to West German economic reforms carried out underChancellor Ludwig Erhard in 1948-1963 ,pp. 93-94, which show striking similarities with those planned and carried out by the Polish economist, Leszek Balcerowicz, who was Deputy Premier and Finance Minister Dec. 1989 - Dec. 1991 -- see Poland 1990-Present, below. Of course, “the German economic miracle” was greatly aided by the Marshall Plan, while no such aid was granted to E. European countries after the fall of communism.)


William Echickson, Lighting the Night. Revolution in Eastern Europe, (New York, 1990).

(Well written book by an American journalist who knew E.Europe well, particularly Czechoslovakia. The book has interesting photographs and a bibliography.)


THE END OF YALTA. Breakthrough in Eastern Europe, 1989/90, translated by Herchenreder,. (Karta, Warsaw, 1999).

(An illustrated survey beginning with the Allied Yalta agreements on E.Europe, Feb. 1945. The book has a chronology of events by country in Poland, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Romania and the Baltic States in 1988-90; it is also available on C.D.)


Mark Frankland, The Patriots’ Revolution. How Eastern Europe Toppled Communism and Won Its Freedom, (Chicago, 1990, 1992).

(A first hand account by a British journalist, b.1934, who had been the Moscow correspondent of the London Observer, and had reported from Budapest and other world capitals.)


Paul Hollander, Political Will & Personal Belief. The Decline and Fall of Soviet Communism, (New Haven, CT., 1999).

(Covers the USSR, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, where the author grew up. Hollander was then professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts at Amhurst, and a Fellow at the Davis Center for Russian Studies, Harvard University.)

Mark Kramer, "Gorbachev and the Demise of East European Communism," ch. 11 in: Silvio Pons and Federico Romero, Reinterpreting the End of the Cold War, (London, New York, 2005)

  (An excellent study showing how Gorbachev's drastic changes in Soviet communism led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. An expanded version of this chapter will appear in Kramer's forthcoming book: The Demise of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe and the USSR. Kramer is head of the Cold War Project at Harvard University.)

Lyman H. Legters, ed., EASTERN EUROPE. Transformation and Revolution, 1945-1991,

(Lexington, Mass., Toronto, Canada,1992), Part IV “The Bloc Transformed, “ pp. 297-609.

(Articles on each country beginning with Poland and ending with Yugoslavia, with a concluding survey of the whole region. See also Part V. “Reflection and Outlook,” which records contemporary specialists' views, pp.611-.656. Legters was then a professor of History at Washington University, Seattle, Wash.)


David S. Mason, REVOLUTION IN EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE. The Rise and Fall of Communism and the Cold War(Boulder, CO., 1992).

(After a brief introductory background, this political science study traces developments in E. Europe after Mikhail S. Gorbachev launched his reforms in the USSR. Mason then taught at Butler University, Indianapolis, IN.)


Gwyn Prins, ed., Spring in Winter. The 1989 Revolutions, Preface by Vaclav Havel, (Manchester and New York, 1990).

(Gwyn Prins was then the Director of the Global Security Programme at Cambridge University, England; V. Havel was then President of Czechoslovakia and later President of the Czech Republic after its separation from Slovakia. Apart from a synthesis by the American scholar John K. Galbraith, the other European authors discuss the fall of communism in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Romania, with a chapter on Russia. There is a useful chronology at the back of the book of events in all these countries, listed in parallel columns, from Jan.1988 through March 1990. For an overview, read the Introduction by Gwyn Prins, pp. xi-xxiv. The book was completed in June 1990.)

Sabrina P. Ramet, Social Currents in Eastern Europe. The Sources and Meaning of the Great Transformation, (Durham, N.C. and London, 1991).

(Fascinating studies of dissent in the 1980s; religious and ethnic currents; feminism; rock music and trends current in 1989-90. The book was completed in early or mid-1990. S.P. Ramet, a political scientist and Balkan specialist, prolific author and editor, then taught at the Jackson School for International Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.) 


Joseph Rothschild, Nancy M. Wingfield, Return to Diversity. A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II, 4th edition, New York, Oxford, 2008, ch. 7. "The Various Endgames."

(Nancy Wingfield, an American specialist on Central Europe, is the editor of Nationalities Papers, and teaches history at Northern Illinois University. She updated parts of chapters in Rotschild’s 2nd edition, added some reinterpretation to ch. 7, an overview of the collapse of communism and wrote a new chapter, 8: the return to Europe. The book covers the whole region known formerly as Eastern Europe; this edition was completed in Feb. 1999.

Sorin Antohi and Vladimir Tismaneanu, eds., BETWEEN PAST AND FUTURE. The Revolutions of 1989 and their Aftermath, (Budapest, 2000). Pt. I, Meanings of 1989: Present Significance of the Past, pp. 3-80.

(Reflections on 1989 by specialists on East Central Europe. Sorin Antohi (last name first, Hungarian style), was then an associate professor of History at the University of Bucharest, Romania, and at the Central European University, Budapest. Vladimir Tismaneanu is of Romanian origin and was then a professor of Government and Politics, also Director of the Center for the Study of Post-Communist Societies at the University of Maryland, College Park, MD, and the editor of the journal East European Politics and Societies.)

Gale Stokes, The Walls Came Tumbling Down, (New York, Oxford, 1993).

(An interpretative synthesis by an American specialist in Balkan/East European history then teaching at Rice University, Houston, TX. Chapters 1 and 2 are an overview of all the countries; ch. 3 deals with Hungary; ch. 4 with Poland; ch. 5 with “The Glorious Revolutions of 1989;” ch. 6 is an overview of 1990 and 1991; ch. 7, deals with the disintegration of Yugoslavia; ch. 8 is the epilog. The book was completed in Feb. 1993.)


Vladimir Tismaneanu, ed., The Revolutions of 1989, in the series: "Rewriting Histories," (London, New York, 1999).

(Introduction by Tismaneanu and contributions by experts. Some of the articles are reprinted from earlier publications, some are more recent. Of the more notable ones, read Adam Michnik, “The Velvet Restoration.” The book has brief information on the contributors and an index. See review by Charles Bukowski, Nationalities Papers, vol. 28, no. 2000, pp. 361-362.

Michael Waller, The End of the Communist Power Monopoly, (Manchester and New York, 1993).

(A political science study with very useful tables and figures. Waller was then Senior Lecturer in Government at the University of Manchester.)


WITHOUT FORCE OR LIES. Voices from the Revolution of Central Europe in 1989-90, With Essays, Speeches and Eyewitness Accounts, edited by William M. Brinton and Alan Rinzler,

(Mercury House, San Francisco and United Kingdom, 1990).

(A fine collection of speeches and writings by prominent dissidents from East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, the Baltic States and the Soviet Union, with commentary by William M. Brinton and Vaclav Havel’s Address to the U.S. Congress, Feb. 1990, as Epilogue. Alan Rinzler, b.1938, was then director of the Book Division, GPI Cupertino, CA.)





Gale Stokes, FROM STALINISM TO PLURALISM, (2nd ed., New York, Oxford, 1996), Pt. IV, pp. 224-254.

(This covers events in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia, ending with Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel’s fine New Year’s Day speech, Jan. 1, 1991. Pt. V. “After the Fall,” has selected writings and speeches from East European writers and statesmen, a section on the collapse of Yugoslavia, and one on M.S. Gorbachev’s legacy citing his own words.) 


3. POLAND, 1989-90.


(See chapters on Poland in books listed in section 5 (i) ).


Marjorie Castle, "The Final Crisis of the People’s Republic of Poland;" ch. 4 in: Jane Leftwich Curry and Luba Fajfer, POLAND’S PERMANENTREVOLUTION. People versus Elites, 1956-1990, (Washington, D.C., 1996).

(Marjorie Castle was then a graduate student at Stanford University; Jane Leftwich Curry, who has published many works on Poland, is a professor of Political Science at Santa Clara University, CA; Luba Fajfer was then an associate editor of Communist and Post-Communist Studies.)


John R. Davies, “Some Reflections on 1989 in Poland,” Polish Review, vol. XLIV (44) no 4,1999, pp. 389-393.

-reminiscences on U.S. policy and events in Poland by an American diplomat, U.S. charge d’affaires, Warsaw, 1983-86, laterAmbassador to Poland.

Grzegorz Ekiert and Jan Kubik, REBELLIOUS CIVIL SOCIETY. Popular Protest and Democratic Consolidation in Poland, 1989-1993, (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1999).

The Introduction sets out the authors’ methodology and approach to the subject; ch. 1, is an excellent survey of political crises in Poland from 1956 through 1989. G. Ekiert if professor of Government at Harvard University; J. Kubik was is an associate professor of Political Science at Rutgers University. They acknowledge the valuable contribution of computer analyst Anna Grzymala-Busse (raised in Lawrence,KS) in analyzing data, creating tables and checking data.The book was awarded the AAASS Orbis Prize for the best book on Poland published in 1999.

Bartlomiej Kaminski, The Collapse of State Socialism: The Case of Poland, (Princeton, N.J., 1991).

(Very good economic analysis. B.Kaminski was then an associate professor in the Dept. of Government, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.)


Jan Kubik, THE POWER OF SYMBOLS AND THE SYMBOLS OF POWER. The Rise of Solidarity and the Fall of State Socialism in Poland, (University Park, PA.,1994.), ch. 8, “The Role of Symbols in the Construction and Deconstruction of the Polish People’s Republic,” pp. 239-270.

(Jan Kubik was then assistant professor of Political Science at Rutgers University. The book deals mostly with the period 1980-88.) 


Walter Raymond, Jr., “Poland - The Road to 1989,” Polish Review, vol. XLIV, no. 4, 1999, pp. 392-405.

(Raymond served on the National Security Council under President Ronald Reagan, 1982-87, when he kept in close touch with dissident activities in Poland.)


Jadwiga Staniszkis, The Dynamics of the Breakthrough in Eastern Europe. The Polish Experience, trans. by Chester A. Kisiel; Foreword by Ivan Szelenyi, (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 1991).

(Jadwiga Staniszkis, a prominent Polish Sociologist who teaches at Warsaw University, was an adviser to Solidarity in 1980-81 and published a well received book: Poland’s Self-Limiting Revolution, (1984). This is a sociological analysis of the collapse of Communism in Poland, which Staniszkis sees as “a revolution from the top.” She notes the important role of social pressure from below, but sees the PZPR leaders as deciding to concede some power to the opposition while agreeing with the latter on a course of action in the best interests of the country. It is clear that the party leaders agreed to the Round Table talks and signed the agreements, but they did not foresee the party's defeat in the elections of June 4, 1989, which can be called a revolution from the ground up.. Ivan Szelenyi is a prominent American sociologist of Hungarian descent, who teaches at the University of California at Los Angeles.)

Lech Walesa, The Struggle and the Triumph. An Autobiography, with the collaboration of Arkadiusz Rybicki, trans. Franklin Philip in collaboration with Helen Mahut, (New York, 1991), see Part II, Public Life, ch. 16-23.

(Interesting account by the famous Solidarity Leader, 1980-81, “interned” by Polish authorities 1981-82; Nobel Peace Prize Winner, 1982; and Solidarity’s leader at the Round Table talks, Warsaw, spring 1989. He was elected President of Poland Dec. 1990 and held that post until Dec. 1995 when he lost the election to former communist bureaucrat Aleksander Kwasniewski - who won re-election in Dec. 2000.

Lawrence Weschler, “A REPORTER AT LARGE. A Grand Experiment,” New Yorker, Nov. 13, 1989, pp.59-104.

(On the spot observations by an American journalist, a specialist on Poland, who was there in the fall of 1989.)


4. Hungary 1989-90.


Andras Bozoki, The Roundtable Tallks of 1989: The Genesis of Hungarian Democracy. Analysis and Documments,(Budapest, 2002).

(reviewed by Jan Kubik, Slavic Review, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 163-165.


Jorg K. Hoensch, A History of Modern Hungary, 1867-1994, (2nd ed., trans. Kim Traynor, London and New York, 1996), ch. 7, The Transition to Democracy and the Market Economy, pp. 279-342.

(A survey of the events of 1988-89 and the following five years, ending with a Socialist victory in the elections of 1994. Hoensch, who taught at a German university, died in 2003.)


Agnes Horvath and Arpad Szakolczai, The Dissolution of Communist Power: The Case of Hungary, trans. from Hungarian, (London, New York, 1992).

(On communist Hungary and the fall of communism in Hungary.)


Janos Kornai, The Road to a Free Economy. Shifting from the Socialist System: The Example of Hungary, (New York, London, 1990).

(A guide to the process of transition by a prominent Hungarian economist and well known dissident in communist Hungary.)


Patrick O’Neill, Revolution from Within: The Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party and the Collapse of Communism, .Elgar, ed., Studies of Communism in Transition, (Cheltenham, England, Northampton, MA., 1998).

(On the divisions in the HSWP and its disintegration.) 


Rudolf L. Tokes, Hungary’s negotiated revolution. Economic reform, social change and political succession, (Cambridge, England, 1996), Part III. From Postcommunism to Democracy, ch. 7-9, pp. 305-440.

(This is the last part of Tokes’s detailed, political survey of Hungary from 1956 to 1990. Tokes, an American political scientist of Hungarian descent, was then professor of Political Science at the University of Connecticut.)


5. German Democratic Republic: The End of the GDR,the Reunification of Germany. 1989-90, and Consequences.


Bruce Allen, Germany East. Dissent and Opposition, (Montreal, New York, 1989).

(A survey of dissidence from 1945 to 1989; see esp. chapters on: The Impact of the Polish Crisis and Solidarnosc: the Autonomous Peace Movement; Human Rights and Ecology: The New Opposition; Conclusion, pp. 83-161 and Postscript. Bruce Allen was then an auto worker and trade union activist in Canada, and a founder of the Polish Workers’ Solidarity Committee there. This is an interesting survey with illustrations.).


Peter Alter, The German Question and Europe. A History, (London, New York, 2000); ch. 8, “The German Question 1989-90: a dream come true?” pp. 129-144.

(Surveys attitudes toward German unification, especially in France and Great Britain. The book has a useful chronology and a select bibliography. P. Alter was then professor of Modern History, University of Duisburg, Germany.)


J.F. Brown, The Surge to Freedom.The End of Communist Rule in Eastern Europe, (Durham, N.C. and London), 1991, ch. 5, The German Democratic Republic. The State without a Nation, pp. 125-184.

(An excellent survey of the GDR in the whole postwar period; the last few pages deal with its collapse.)


George Bush and Brent Scowcroft, A World Transformed, (New York, 1998).

(A more or less chronological account by former President George Herbert Walker Bush and his National Security Adviser, Brent Scowcroft, of U.S. reactions to and policy on the collapse of communism in E.Europe and Russia, German unification, the Tienanmen Square massacre and Desert Stor;. for Germany and all other countries, see book Index. The authors, who were among the chief actors in these dramas, show the delicate interplay of domestic politics and unification for German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who feared a backlash from some German political parties if a reunited Germany officially recognized the post WW II German-Polish border, which it finally did. There are fascinating bits of information on the Kohl-Gorbachev negotiations on German unification and the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the GDR. Compare this book with the one by C. Rice and P. Zelikow below.)

Paul Cooke, Representing East Germany since Unification: From Colonization to Nostalgia,  (New York, NY, 2005).

(See review by Russell Spinney, H-German, H-Net Reviews, January 2007, URL:

Gareth Dale, Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945-1989, (London, 2005).

(See review by Robert Goeckel in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 3, fall 2007, pp. 516-517.)


Mike Dennis, The Rise and Fall of the German Democratic Republic, (Pearson Education series, Longman, Edinburgh, 2000).. Part 4, covers the Honecker years, 1971-87; pt. 5 is on the GDR on the Eve of Revolution, and pt. 6 deals with Germany’s Unexpected Revolution, 1989-90.

(Good survey by a British historian of the GDR, who was then professor of Modern History at the University of Wolverhampton, England. The book has a list of abbreviations, a bibliography and index.)


M. Donald Hancock and Helga A Walsh, eds., German Unification. Process & Outcomes, (Boulder, CO., 1994).

(A good collection of political science papers by different authors. Part One gives the background; Part Two deals with reform, unification, political parties and reactions of the European Community; Part Three discusses economic and social consequences/problems. Hancock was then professor of Political Science and director of the Center for European Studies, Vanderbilt University; Walsh was a visiting assistant professor of Politics at Wake Forest University.)


Melvin J. Lasky, Voices in a Revolution. The Collapse of East German Communism, (N.J., 1992).

(Interesting, analytical work on the German intelligentsia in the GDR and its opposition to the regime. Lasky was the American editor of the British periodical Encounter, 1958-80, and wrote for many other leading papers and periodicals; he also authored books on the Hungarian Revolution and on Africa. As of 2002, he was living in Berlin.)

Charles S. Maier, Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East Germany, (Princeton, N.J., 1997).

A detailed, analytical survey of the economic collapse of the GDR, the mass demonstrations of 1989, the transition to democracy, then unification with West Germany. Maier, who teaches History at Harvard, has written several outstanding works on modern Europe, also on the Holocaust and German national identity.

Karoline von Oppen, The Role of the Writer and the Press in the Unification of Germany, 1989-1990, (New York, NY, 2000). (

See review by Andrea Orzoff, Jhistory, H-Net Reviews, August 2006, URL:

Dirk Philipsen, We Were the People: Voices from East Germany’s Revolutionary Autumn of 1989, (Durham, N.C., 1993). 

(A good selection of texts.)


Elizabeth Pond, Beyond the Wall. Germany’s Road to Unification, (Washington, D.C., 1993).

(The first 6 chapters give an excellent background to the German question; ch.7 - 10 deal with the events of 1989 in the German Democratic Republic, culminating with the fall of the Berlin Wall. Ch. 11. is on the “Stasi” or secret police. Chapters 12-15 trace the road to unification; ch.16 deals with the aftermath, and ch. 17 is on "The Agenda for America.” The author, a political scientist and journalist, interviewed some GDR leaders and wrote the work for the Brookings Foundation.)


Philip Zelikow, Condoleezza Rice, Germany Unified and Europe Transformed. A Study in Statecraft, (Cambridge, Mass., London, England, 1995. 3rd printing, 1996).

(Detailed account of the diplomatic process of German unification by two insiders.


Condoleezza Rice, b. Birmingham, Alabama, 1954,, a political scientist specializing in the USSR, worked in the State Dept. and elsewhere and was Director of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council under President George H.W.Bush,1989-90 and thus involved in U.S. diplomacy regarding the unification of Germany. In 1995 she was Provost and professor of political science at Stanford University, and adviser on Russia to President George W. Bush; returned to Stanford Univresity after the election of Barack Obama as president in Nov. 2008..

Philip Zelikow, b. 1954, obtained a J.D. then M.A. and Ph.D. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1995. He worked in the State Department and elsewhere and was director for European security affairs under President George H.W. Bush, 1989-1991, so was involved in U.S. diplomacy on German reunification. He is a professor at the Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.)

D. Eastern Europe,1989-90- 2000




(i) Collections of Papers, Evaluations, Personal Experiences, Studies and Surveys.


Jan Adam, Social Costs of Transformation to a Market Economy in Post-Socialist Countries: The Cases of Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary, (New York, 1999).

(Emphasizes negative aspects of economic transition.)

Anders Aslund, How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia (Cambridge, England, 2007).

(By a Swedish economist, specialist on E.Europe; senior fellow, Peterson Institute and adjunct professor at Georgetown University.)


Timothy Garton Ash, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT. Essays, Sketches, and Dispatches from Europe in the 1990s, (New York, 1999).

(Fascinating reports from East Central Europe and the Balkans in the 1990s by a British historian-journalist who knows the region well. He traveled in the countries, spoke with leaders and writers as well as with ordinary people.)

Zoltan Barany and Ivan Volgyes, (Eds.), The Legacies of Communism in Eastern Europe (Baltimore, 1995).

(The editors are well known political scientists, specialists on Eastern Europe).

Mario I. Blejer and Fabrizio Coricelli, The Making of Economic Reform in Eastern Europe: Conversations with Leading Reformers in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, E. Elgar ed., Studies of Communism in Transition, (Aldershot, England and Brookfield, Vt., U.S.A., 1995).


J.F. Brown, Hopes and Shadows: Eastern Europe after Communism, (Durham, N.C., 1994).

(An early survey of the first post-communist years by an American specialist.)


Janusz Bugajski, Nations in Turmoil. Conflict and Cooperation in Eastern Europe, (2nd edition, Boulder CO., 1995).

(A balanced, analytical account of national conflict and cooperation, with historical background, by an expert. Janusz Bugajski, who is of Polish descent, was in 2000 the Director of East European Studies in the Center for Strategic Studies, Washington, D.C. This book is an excellent introduction to post-communist, East European nationalism; it has illustrations, and a useful list of political organizations. See also Michael Ignatieff, below).


Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrott, The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe, (Cambridge, England, 1997).

(Judicious evaluations by two experts on the region. Karen L.Dawisha, a political scientist, then taught at the Center for Russian and Post-Soviet Studies, Miami University, Miami, OH. Bruce Parrott, also a political scientist, then taught at the School for Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University.)


Grzegorz Ekiert and Stephen E. Hanson, eds., Capitalism and Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe: Assessing the Legacy of Communist Rule, (Cambridge, MA, 2003).;

(See review by Stephen White in Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 2, summer 2005, pp. 407-408.)

John Fitzmaurice, Damming the Danube: Gabcikovo and Post-Communist Politics in Europe, (Boulder, CO., 1996).

(The completion of the dam on at Gabcikovo, begun in the late communist era, continues to be disputed between Slovakia and Hungary.)


Misha Glenny, THE REBIRTH OF HISTORY. Eastern Europe in the Age of Democracy, ( London, New York, 1993.)

(Interesting reflections on the role of history, or rather historical memory, in the political life and thought of post-communist Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria. Glenny is a British journalist, expert on the Balkans, author of a history of the region.) 

George W. Grayson, Strange Bedfellows. NATO Marches East, (Lanham, New York, Oxford, 1999).

(Very useful and well written story about Americans who began to push the idea of expanding NATO by including some E. European countries, and those who were opposed; also about President Clinton’s decision to support expansion; on Polish-American and Polish work for it, also work by other ethnic East European lobbies in U.S; and finally how NATO was expanded in March 1999 to include Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. 

George W. Grayson was then the Class of 1938 Professor of Government at the College of William & Mary. and the author of many books.)


E. Hanley et al., The Making of Post-Communist Elites in Eastern Europe: A Comparison of Political and Economic Elites in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland, (Prague, 1996).


Ewa Hoffman, Exit into History. A Journey Through the New Eastern Europe, (New York, 1993).

(A well written and fascinating account of the author’s travels in the early days of post-communist Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, her conversations with people there, and her reflections. Ewa Hoffman, b. Krakow, Poland, emigrated to Canada at age 13. She is also the author of: Lost in Translation. A Life in a New Language, recounting her personal experience. She lives in New York.)

Paul Hockenos, FREE TO HATE. The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe, (New York, London, 1993).

(The book has chapters on Germany and East Germany, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic, Poland, and on Anti-Semitism without Jews. This is a useful survey of the extreme Right in these countries, where it is a marginal political presence. Hockenos was then the Central and Eastern European correspondent for In These Times, an independent, biweekly socialist newspaper published in Chicago since 1976. The book has notes and an index. See also Sabrina Ramet below.


Wendy Hollis, Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe: The Influence of the Communist Legacy in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Romania, East European Monographs no. 529, (Boulder CO and New York, 1991).

Shale Horowitz, “National Identity and Liberalizing Consensus in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic,” Polish Review, vol. XLV, 2000, no. 2, pp.197-216.

(A good review of economic policies, results, and reactions in the three countries. Horowitz was then an assoc. professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.)


Michael Ignatieff, Blood and Belonging. Journeys into the New Nationalism, (New York, 1993).

(Travel in and observations on Croatia and Serbia, Germany, Ukraine, Quebec, Kurdistan, and Northern Ireland. Ignatieff,(b. 1947, Toronto, Canada, is a well known journalist and author of Russian descent. This is an early look at ethnic ties and their role in post-communist nationalism with comparative accounts of the situation in other states without a communist past. See also book by Bugajski, above.)

Padraic Kenney, The Burdens of Freedom. Eastern Europe since 1989 (Black Point, Nova Scotia and London, 2006).

(Best, insightful survey of both East Central and South Eastern Europe; esp. good on Poland.)


Christiane Lemke and Gary Marks, eds., The Crisis of Socialism in Europe, (Durham, N.C., and London, 1992).

(Contributions by Norman Naimark, Sharon Wolchik, and others on E.Europe and Germany. Chr. Lemke was then on the faculty of the Free University of Berlin and had published a book on the collapse of the DDR; G. Marks was assoc. prof. of Political Science at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and had published a book on unions in Britain, Germany and U.S. in the 19th and 20th centuries For Naimark and Wolchik see elsewhere in this bibliography.).

Andrew Nagorski, The Birth of Freedom. Shaping Lives and Societies in the New Eastern Europe, (New York, 1993).

(Lively, well written observations on Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the immediate post-communist years by a journalist of Polish descent who knows the region well. At this time, Nagorski was the Warsaw Bureau chief of Newsweek, later in Moscow; see his book on the Battle of Moscow.).


John Pinder, The European Community and Eastern Europe, (London, New York, 1991).

(An early look at the implications of the collapse of communism for the European community. Pinder was then a member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London.)


Sabrina P. Ramet, Eastern Europe. Politics, Culture, and Society since 1939, (Bloomington, IN., 1998).

(After an introduction by Ramet, an expert on the Balkans, then a professor at Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, and a specialist on the Balkans and Russia, there are 8 useful chapters on all the former communist states of E.Europe, including Germany (ch. 3-10). Ch. 11 through 16 cover women and politics in communist and post-communist societies; religion and politics; cinema; economic challenges in post-communist marketization; democracy, markets and security; democracy, toleration and the cycles of history. There are useful bibliographies to each chapter at the back of the book.)


Same, ed., The Radical Right in Eastern Europe since 1989, (University Park, PA., 1999).

(See also Hockenos above).


J.M.C. Rollo, The New Eastern Europe. Western Responses, London, (New York, 1990).

(An early look at economic problems. Rollo was then the Head Economist at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London.)

Joseph Rotschild, Nancy M. Wingfield, Return to Diversity. A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II, (4th edition, New York, Oxford, 2008), ch.8, The Return to Europe.

(A brief survey through 2006 written by N.Wingfield, editor of Nationalities Papers, who teaches at Northern Illinois University. J.Rotschild, who wrote the original book died in 1999. Each chapter has a bibliography.)


Antohi Sorin and Vladimir Tismaneanu, eds., Between Past and Future. The Revolutions of 1989 and their Aftermath, (Budapest, 2000).

(Valuable collection of papers by experts from a conference held at Budapest March 29 1999, reflecting on the ten years of post-communism in E.Europe . The book is divided into 4 parts: Pt I. “Meanings of 1989: Present Significance of the Past” (ch. 1-5); Pt. II. “Winners and Losers in the Great Transformation” (ch. 6-9); Pt. III. “Vulnerabilities of the New Democracies” (ch. `0-15); Pt.IV. “The New Europe: Prospects for Cooperation and Conflict” (ch. 16-20); Pt. V. “Past, Present, Future.”Conclusions - Timothy Garton Ash.

The book deals with Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary; includes economic statistics tables and list of contributors. Antoni Sorin (Hungarian: Sorin, Antoni) was then assoc. professor of History at the University of Budapest; V.Tismaneanu, b. Romania, 1951, author of several books and many articles, is professor of Government and Politics and director of the Center for the Study of Post-Communist Societies, University of Maryland, College Park, Md., and editor of the journal East European Politics and Societies.- EEPS. He headed the Romanian Presidential Commission for study of the communist dictatorship in Romania, which uncovered unwelcome information on the past of some Romanian officials and parliamentarians: see Tismaneanu in Wikipedia.)


Geoffrey Swain and Nigel Swain, Eastern Europe since 1945, (2nd edition, New York, 1998; revised 3rd ed. 2003) ch.9. Adapting to Capitalism: Consensus or Confrontation?

(Brief survey designed for British readers. Geoffrey Swain is the Alec Nove Professor of Russian and East European Studies at the University of Glasgow; his brother Nigel Swain is Professor of History and Deputy Director of the Centre for Central and East European Studies, University of Liverpool.)


Jadwiga Staniszkis, Post-Communism. The Emerging Enigma, (Warsaw, 1999).

(Analysis by a prominent Polish sociologist who believes that the post-communist realities are not the market and democracy, but “state capitalism without the state."  This is a book for people interested in analyzing and evaluating theories based on competent observation..See also Vanhuysse.)

Pieter Vanhuysse, “The Political Dynamics of Economic Reforms: Przeworski’s Theory and the Case of Poland and Hungary,” East European Quarterly, vol. XXXIII, no. 4, 1999, pp. .490-515.

(Interesting, critical analysis of a Polish economist’s theories on the market and on liberalization in two countries by another economist.) 






Mark Brzezinski, The Struggle for Constitutionalism in Poland, (London, New York, 1998).

(Ch. 1- 3 cover the period up to 1989; ch.4-8 deal with constitutional reform and politics 1989-97. M. Brzezinski, a lawyer and political scientist, was a Fulbright Scholar at the Polish Constitutional Court, 1991-95, while also holding other positions. The book is based on the author’s Ph.D. diss. written at the University of Oxford. Mark is the son of Zbigniew Brzezinski, a well known political scientist, prolific author, and National Security Adviser to President Jimmy Carter.)


Grzegorz Ekiert and Jan Kubik, Rebellious Civil Society. Popular Protest and Democratic Consultation in Poland, 1989-1993, (Ann Arbor, Mich., 2000).

(Excellent political science study of protest politics in Poland, with 11 valuable figures on public opinion, protests, strategies and targets covering 1990-94, plus chronology and section on methodology. G. Ekiert is professor of Government at Harvard and member of the Exec. Cttee. Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies there;J. Kubik is assoc. professor of Political Science at Rutgers. Orbis Prize for best book published on Poland, 2000.) 


Richard J. Hunter, Jr. and Leo V. Ryan, C.S.V., "The Ten Most Important Economic and Political Events Since the Onset of the Transition in Post-Communist Poland," The Polish Review, vol. LIII, no. 2, 2008, pp. 183-216.

Adam Michnik, Letters from Freedom. Post-Cold War Realities and Perspectives,

edited by Irena Grudzinska Gross, foreword by Ken Jowitt, (Berkeley, CA., 1998). 

(Pt.I. Hopelessness and Hope, covers the pre-1989 period; pt.II. Notes from the Revolution, covers 1989-90; Pt. III. Speeches and Conversations, deals with various topics of interest to Michnik.

Michnik, b. 1946, was a leading dissident in the period 1967-89, and initiator of the 1990 government-Solidarity compromise of “Your President, our Premier.” He founded the paper Gazeta Wyborcza, 1989, and has been its editor-in-chief since that time. Irena Grudzinska-Gross, b. 1946,has published works on Polish and western literature and edited othes; she is Professor of Comparative Literature and Exec. Dir. Institute for Human Sciences, Boston University.


Andrzej Paczkowski, “Communist Poland 1944-1989: Some Controversies and a Single Conclusion,” Polish Review, vol. XLIV, no. 2, 1999, pp. 217-225.

(Concise, informative essay on controversies among Polish historians on how to interpret communist “People’s Poland.” Andrzej Paczkowski, b. 1938, was one of the first Polish historians to study Polish and Russian Politburo records, also the surviving records of the Polish Security Police. He has written a history of Poland in the postwar period as well as several other books, and has edited several documentary collections. He is Director of Modern Historyl Studies at the Institute of Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and board member of the IPN, Inst. of National Memory, Warsaw. )


Radek Sikorski, Full Circle. A Homecoming to Free Poland, (New York, 1997).

(Fascinating personal-family story of a dissident Polish journalist who became minister of defense in post-communist Poland. Born 1963, he was granted political asylum in Britain, 1982, and worked as a free lance journalist. His book on the Afghan war: Dust of the Saints: A Journey to Herat in Time of War, is considered a classic. He became Foreign Min. in the govt. of Donald Tusk, fall 2007.) 

Genvieve Zubrzycki, The Crosses of Auschwitz: Nationalism and Religion in Post-Communist Poland, (Chicago, IL, 2006).

(See review by Marek Kucia in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 3, fall 2007, pp. 537-538.)

Historical Studies on Polish-Jewish Relations.

Jolanta Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, “So Many Questions: The Development of Holocaust Education in Post-Communist Poland,” in Gabriel N. Finder, Natalia Aleksiun, Antony Polonsky, and Jan Schwarz, eds., Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 20: Making Holocaust Memory, Oxford and Portland, (OR, 2008), pp. 271-304.

Anna M. Cienciala (rev essay on IPN Jedwabne studies, PR)

"The Massacres in North-Eastern Poland in Summer 1941,” in Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski and Antony Polonsky, eds., Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 19: Polish-Jewish Relations in North America, (Portland, OR, 2007), pp. 537-541.

Gunnar S. Paulsson, “The Report of the Instytut Pamieci Narodowej on the Massacres in North-Eastern Poland in Summer 1941,” in Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski and Antony Polonsky, eds., Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 19: Polish-Jewish Relations in North America, Portland, OR, 2007, pp. 537-54.(See also Cienciala, above.)

Antony Polonsky, “The Jebwabne Debate in America,” in Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski and Antony Polonsky, eds., Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 19: Polish-Jewish Relations in North America, (Portland, OR, 2007), pp. 393-413.

Robert Szuchta, “From Silence to Recognition: The Holocaust in Polish Education since 1989,” in Gabriel N. Finder, Natalia Aleksiun, Antony Polonsky, and Jan Schwarz, eds., Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 20: Making Holocaust Memory, (Oxford and Portland, OR, 2008), pp. 305-317.

b. Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic, Slovakia.


J.F. Brown, Surge to Freedom, (Durham N.C. and London, 1991), ch.6, pp. 149-160.

Zsuzsa Csergo, Talk of the Nation: Language and Conflict in Romania and Slovakia, (Ithaca, NY, 2007).

(See review by Nadya Nedelsky, Slavic Review, vol. 67, no. 3, fall 2008, pp. 754-756)

.Sean Hanley, The New Right in the New Europe: Czech Transformation and Right Wing Politics, 1989-2006, (London, 2008).

(See review by Martin Dangerfield, Slavic Review, vol. 67, no. 3, fall 2008, pp. 751-752.

Alena Heitlinger, In The Shadows Of The Holocaust: Czech And Slovak Jews Since 1945, (New Brunswick, Can., 2006).

(See review by Nancy w. Wingfield in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 4, winter 2007, pp. 746-747.) 

John Keane, Vaclav Havel. A Political Tragedy in Six Acts, (New York, 2000), “Decline (1990-1999), pp.407-506.

(A critical evaluation of Havel as President. Keane is Prof. of Politics at the Centre for the Study of Democracy, University of Westminster; he edited Havel’s book: The Power of the Powerless.).

Eda Kriseova, Vaclav Havel. Authorized Biography, translated by Caleb Crain, (New York, 1993).

(Ch. 49-56 deal with Havel’s activity in the collapse of the Czechoslovak communism, 1989.)

Mark Sommer, Living in Freedom. The Exhilaration and Anguish of Prague’s Second Spring, (San Francisco, 1992).

Sommer was then a research associate of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program, University of California, Berkeley, CA. He was in Czechoslovakia in 1983, 1990 and 1991, when he conducted in-depth interviews recording reactions to the new situation.


Eric Stein, Czecho / Slovakia. Ethnic Conflict, Constitutional Fissure, Negotiated Breakup, (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2000).

(A study by a legal expert. Eric Stein, b. in Czechoslovakia, is a professor emeritus of the University of Michigan Law School. He served in the U.S. Dept. of State, was an advisor to the U.S. Delegation to the U.N. General Assembly, and a member of the international group called on to advise the Czech and Slovak authorities on constitutional issues. This is a book for readers interested in the legal and economic aspects of the break up of the Czechoslovak state into the Czech and Slovak Republics on Jan. 1, 1993.).

Bernard L. Wheaton, The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia 1988-1991 ,(Boulder, CO., 1992).

(An interesting,early analysis.) 


Tim D. Whipple, ed., After the Velvet Revolution. Vaclav Havel & the New Leaders of Czechoslovakia Speak Out, (New York, 1991).

(Speeches by new leaders of Czechoslovakia through June 1990. Czech political cartoons add life to the book.) 


Sharon L. Wolchik, Czechoslovakia in Transition: Politics, Economics, and Society, (London, New York, 1991).

(Valuable study by an American political scientist who teaches at George Washington University, Washington, D.C.)


c. Hungary 1990-2000

Rudolf Andorka, ed., A Society Transformed: Hungary in Time-Space Perspective, (New York, 1999).

(Compares Hungarian economic-social conditions and social reactions during the early transformation period with those in Poland and the Czech Republic.)


David L.Bartlett, The Political Economy of Dual Transformation: Market Reform and Democratization in Hungary, (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997).


William H. Berquist, Berne Weiss, Freedom: Narratives of Change in Hungary and Estonia, (Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series), San Francisco, CA., 1994).

(Focus on social conditions; method: interviews.)


Andras Bozoki, Andras Korosenyi, George Schopflin eds., Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary, (London, New York, 1992).

(Analyses by experts of 1989-90 political and government changes).

Randolph Braham, ed., The Treatment of the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania During the Post-Communist Era, (New York, N.Y, 2004).

  (The editor is prominent historian of the Holocaust in Hungary. He is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the Graduate Center, New York University.).

Aurel Braun and Zoltan Barany, eds., Dilemmas of Transition: The Hungarian Experience, (Lanham, MD., 1999).

(Deals with social and economic conditions, government, since 1989. Zoltan Barany, a political scientist specializing in ethnic studies and military affairs, teaches in the Dept. of Government, University of Texas, Austin, TX.)


Maria Csanadi, Party-States and Their Legacies in Post-Communist Transformation, (Edward Elgar, Studies of Communism in Transition., Cheltenham, England, Northampton, MA., 1997.

(On government in Hungary under communism and after.)


Jorg K. Hoensch, A History of Modern Hungary, 1867-1994. trans. Kim Traynor, (2nd ed., London, New York, 1996), ch. 7. The Transition to Democracy and the Market Economy, pp. 279-342.

(Hoensch, d. 2003, brings the story up through spring 1994.)


Gyorgy Konrad, The Melancholy of Rebirth: Essays from Post-Communist Hungary, trans. Michael Henry Heim, (San Diego, 1995).

(Rreflections by a famous Hungarian writer.)


Janos Kornai, Struggle and Hope: Essays on Stabilization and Reform in a Post-Socialist Economy, (Ed.Elgar, Studies in Comparative Economic Systems), Cheltenham, England, Northampton, MA., U.S.A., 1997).

(Studies on economic reform in Hungary and other East European countries by a Hungarian economist.)


Akos Rona-Tas, The Great Surprise of the Small Transformation: The Demise of Communism and the Rise of the Private Sector in Hungary, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997.

(Survey of economic conditions and policy, politics and government, 1945-89, and the collapse of communism., 1989.) 


Stephen White et al. eds., Developments in East European Politics, (Durham, N.C., 1993).

ch. 5 Hungary, pp. 66-82, by Nigel Swain.

(The chapter deals with the period 1989-91. S. White was then professor of Politics and a Member of the Institute of Russian and East European Studies, University of Glasgow. Nigel Swain is Lecturer on Eastern Europe in 20th century, and Deputy Director of the Centre for Central and East European Studies, University of Liverpool. He specializes in social and economic history of 20th c. East Central Europe. For his interests and publications, see University of Liverpool, School of History, Nigel Swain.)


(d) Minorities in Hungary and Hungarian minorities outside Hungary


“Hungary and the Hungarian Minorities,” guest edited by Andrew Ludanyi, Nationalities Papers vol. 24, no. 3, 1996 (Special Topic Issue).

(Pt. I covers the topic through 1944; pt. II. covers the period since 1944, with articles on the period since 1989. There is a note on contributors. Andrew Ludanyi is professor of Political Science specializing in 20th c. Slovenia, Serbia, Romania, Hungary and Croatia, with a special interest in the Hungarian minority in Romnaia.. He teaches at Ohio Northern University.)


Daniel L. Nelson, “Hungary and its Neighbors: Security and Ethnic Minorities,” Nationalities Papers, vol. 26, no. 2, 1998, pp. [313] - 330.D.L. Nelson is a political scientist specializing in international relations, foreign policy and military affairs. As of 2000, he worked for Global Concepts, Inc.


Raphael Vago, The Grandchildren of Trianon: Hungary and the Hungarian Minority in the Communist States, East European Monographs no. 258, (Boulder, CO. and New York, 1989).

(Based on author’s Ph.D. dissertation. He teaches at the University of Tel Aviv. He has also published on the Roma people and Jews.) 


(See also: Special Topics, Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe).






Richard J. Crampton, The Balkans since the Second World War,(London, 2002).

(R.J. Crampton is the leading British historian of Bulgaria, professor of East European History, Oxford.)

Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrrott, eds., Politics, Power, and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe, (Cambridge, England, 1997.)

(Studies by experts on democratization, failed or successful, in the lands of former Yugoslavia, also in Albania, Bulgaria and Romania, through 1995. The book has biographical information on the contributors, useful tables, and index. K.Dawisha now teaches at Center for Russian and Post-Soviet Studies,Miami University, Oxford, OH; B. Parrott is Professor and Director of theRuissian and Eurasian Studies Program at the Advanced School of International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D.C.


Misha Glenny, The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999, (New York, 2000).

(The last part of this work covers the dissolution of Yugoslavia, a topic on which Glenny had reported as a journalist at that time. The book has received mixed reviews.  He is a British journalist, worked for many years as the BBC World Service Central Europe coresspondent. His work: The Fall of Yugoslavia, 1992 received the best Overseas Book Prize. )

Same: The Balkans. Nationalism, War & the Great Powers, 1804-1999 (New York, 2000, reprint 2009).

(mixed reviews)


Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans. Twentieth Century, (Cambridge, England, 1983 and reprints; last: 1993). 

( Ch.7-9 deal with the period of World War II, establishment of Communist regimes, immediate postwar readjustment, and communist governments 1950-1980. ch. 10 is an outline and discussion of Greek history through October 1981. Barbara Jelavich, 1924-1995, was a leading American historian of the modern Balkans; she wrote or co-athored -- some with her husband Charles --17 books; both taught at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN., in 1961-93.)

John R. Lampe, Balkans into Southeastern Europe. A Century of War and Transition (New York, 2006)

(J.R. Lampe is a historian of the Balkans; he obtained his Ph.D. at the Univ. of Wisconsin, 1971, and is now a Senior Scholar at the Wilson Center, Washington, D.C.).


same, co-editor with Mark Mazower, Ideologies and National Indentities: The Case of 20th Century South-Eastern Europe (Central European Press, Prague/Budapest, 2004)

Sabrina P. Ramet, ed. Eastern Europe since 1939. Politics, Culture and Society since 1939, (Bloomington, IN., 1998).

(The book has chapters on the history of Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania, then thematic chapters on: Women; Religion; Politics; E. European Cinema; Economic challenges of Post-Communist Marketization; Democracy; Markets; Security; Democracy; Toleranc;, and the Cycles of History. Ramet was then professor of International Studies at the University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. She then went on to teach at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology at Trondheim, Norway.)


Same, Social Currents in Eastern Europe. The Sources and Meaning of the Great Transformation, (Durham, N.C., London, 1991).

(chapter II covers dissent and parallel society in the 1980s in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania; ch. III. on Religious and Ethnic Currents includes Poland and Albanian irredentism in Kosovo; ch.IV. A New Generation, includes feminism in Yugoslavia, rock music and the lost generation; ch. V is on Current Trends - 1980s -in Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia. Appendices: Public Opinion Polls in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia, 1988-1990.)


Robert Lee Wolff, The Balkans in Our Time, (lst ed., 1955; revised edition, New York, 1978).

(Ch. 8, covers the War Years; ch.9, The Communist Takeover, fall 1944- June 1948; ch. 10, The Economy of the Balkan Countries, fall 1944 - June 1948; ch. 11. The Soviet-Yugoslav Dispute; ch. 12. Yugoslavia since the Break with Communism (through early1970s); ch. 13. Political Life in the Balkans since 1948; ch. 14, Balkan Economies since 1948; ch. 15. The Soul and the Mind --Religion, Education, Culture. Epilogue: July 1955. Afterword: The Balkans in 1973. There are maps and a short bibliography of books in western languages. R.L. Wolff, 1915-1980, was a leading American historian of the Balkans; he was Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard.

2. By country.


a. ALBANIA, 1944-92 AND AFTER.


(i) Communist Albania.


Elez Biberaj, “Albania,” in: Sabrina P. Ramet, ed., Eastern Europe since 1939,

(Bloomington, IN, 1998), pp.251-284.

(Biberaj was then Chief of the Albanian Service, Voice of America, Washington, D.C. 


Same, Albania: A Socialist Maverick, Boulder, CO., 1990.

Same, Albania in Transtion: The Rocky Road to Democracy (Boulder CO., 1998).


Isa Blumi, “Hoxha’s Class War: The Cultural Revolution and State Reformation, 1961-1971,” East European Quarterly, vol. XXXIII, no. 3, Fall 1999, pp.303-326.


Berndt Jurgen Fischer, “Albanian Highland Tribal Society and Family Structure in Process of Twentieth Century Transformation,” East European Quarterly, vol. XXXIII, no. 3, Fall 1999, pp. 281-301.

Fischer, b. 1952, is a Political Scientist specializing in Albania and Germany; he teaches at Indiana/Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN.

Same: King Zog and the Struggle for Stability in Albania (Boulder, CO., 1984)


Jon Halliday, The Artful Albanian. The Memoirs of Enver Hoxha, (London, 1986).

Enver Hoxha (1908-1985) was the communist dictator of Albania from 1948 to his death in 1985. Halliday is a British historian of Russia who has also written on Asian history.)


Miranda Vickers, The Albanians. A Modern History, (London, New York,1995, revised edition, 1997).

(Ch.8, 9 cover the communist period; ch. 10, 11 cover the end of communism and the fading of the democratic dream. M.Vickers, British, is a regular broadcaster and writer on Albanian affairs, also a political analyst for the International Crisis Group, Brussels.)


(ii) Post-Communist Albania.

Miranda Vickers, James Pettifer, Albania. From Anarchy to a Balkan Identity, (New York, 1997, 2000).

(This is a detailed study of Albania from 1990 through the elections of May 1996, with a background chapter on the period 1985-1990. For M.Vickers, see Communist Albania, above. James Pettifer was then a Visiting Professor at the Institute of Balkan Studies, University of Thessaloniki. He is the author of several books on the Balkans and Turkey.)


b. Bulgaria


(i) Communist Bulgaria 1944-1989.

John D. Bell, The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov, (Stanford, CA., 1986).

John D. Bells, 1942-1998, was professor of Hhistory at the University of Maryland, President of the Bulgarian Studies Association of America.

Same: Bulgaria in Transition: Politics, Economics, Society and Culture after Communism (Westview Press, 1998).


Michael M. Boll, Cold War in the Balkans: American Foreign Policy and the Emergence of Communist Bulgaria, 1943-1945 (Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1984).

(See review by Zbigniew Brzezinski, Foreign Affairs, summer 1945.) 

Michael M. Boll, ed., The American Military Mission in the Allied Control Commission for Bulgaria, 1944-1947. History and Transcripts, East Eur. Monographs no. 176, (Boulder CO., and Columbia University, New York, 1985).

(The history of the American Military Mission is given on pp. 3-88, and the transcripts on pp. 89-320, also end notes. They show half-hearted American attempts to counter growing Soviet domination of the country.)


J.F. Brown, Bulgaria under Communist Rule, (New York, 1970).

(By an American specialist.)


Richard .J.Crampton, A Concise History of Bulgaria, (Cambridge, England, 1997), ch. 8. Bulgaria under Communist Rule, pp.184-215.

(A concise survey by the leading British historian of Bulgaria, Professor of East European History at Oxford University. Also author of: The Balkans since the Second World War, London, 2002)


Vladimir Kostov, The Bulgarian Umbrella, trans. Burt Reynolds, (New York, 1988).

(About an infamous Bulgarian Secret Service weapon used against dissenters abroad: the poison (rycin)-tipped umbrella was used to take the life of a Bulgarian dissident, Georgi Markov, in London and in a failed attempt to kill the author Kostov, in Paris, two weeks earlier. The author, who survived, tells of the Soviet control of Bulgarian Secret Service operations in Europe.)


John R. Lampe, The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century, (New York, 1986).

Ch. 6-9 cover the economic developments of the postwar period through 1983. J.Lampe, an American specialist in Bulgarian and Yugoslav history, teaches at the University of Maryland.


Robert J. McIntyre, Bulgaria. Politics, Economic and Society, London, New York, 1988.

McIntyre, an Economist, taugh tat universities in New England.

Spas T. Raikin, “Bulgaria,” ch. 9 in Sabrina P. Ramet, Eastern Europe since 1939,


Raikin is Assoc. Prof. Emeritus of History at East Stroudsberg University.


(ii) Post-Communist Bulgaria.


Randall Baker, Summer in the Balkans: Laughter and Tears after Communism, (Kumerian Press)West Hartford, CT., c. 1994

John D. Bell, “Bulgaria,”ch. 6 in: Stephen White et al., eds., Developments in East European Politics, Durham, N.C., 1993, pp. 83-97.

-brief survey of first post-communist years. On Bell, see Communist Bulgaria above.


John D. Bell, ed., Bulgaria in Transition: Politics, Economics, Society and Culture after Communism (Series: Eastern Europe After Communism, Westview Press), Boulder, CO., 1998.

- studies by experts of all aspects of post-communist Bulgaria

John A. Bristow, The Bulgarian Economy in Transition (Ed. Elgar Studies of Communism in Transition), Cheltenham, England, Brookfield, VT., U.S.A., 1996.

R.J. Crampton, A Concise History of Bulgaria, Cambridge, 1997, ch. 9, Post-Communist Bulgaria, pp. 216-233.

concise survey by a specialist.


Gerald W. Creed, Domesticating Revolution: from Socialist Reform to ambivalent Transition in a Bulgarian Village, University Park, PA., 1998.

- agriculture and the state, agrarian reform in Bulgaria. G.W. Creed teaches in the Dept. of Anthropology, Hunter College, New York.


M. Leonard, “NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context,” East European Quarterly, XXXIII, no. 4, January 2000, pp. 517-544.

Leonard teaches at the University of North Florida.


Kassimira Paskaleva, ed., Bulgaria in Transition: Environmental Consequences of Political and Economic Transformation, (Studies in Green Research), Aldershot, England, Brookfield, VT., U.S.A., 1998.

- studies by experts of Bulgarian agriculture and industry, political economy, environmental conditions, de-collectivization and the impact of economic restructuring on the Burgos region.


(c) Romania


(i) Communist Romania: a. 1945-1989.


Egon Balas, Will to Freedom: A Perilous Journey through Fascism and Communism, (Syracuse, N.Y., 2000).

(Biographical account of Jewish experiences in Romania and Hungary during the Holocaust and under Communism.)


Edward Behr, Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite. The Rise and Fall of the Ceausescus(New York, 1991).

(Written for the video documentary on the Ceausescus. Behr, an international journalist, author of a biography of Emperor Hirohito of Japan, interviewed many Romanians. He exposes the tyranny and brutality of Nicolae Ceausescu’s dictatorship. The last 2 chapters deal with his end. )


Burton Y. Berry, Romanian Diaries 1944-1947, edited by Cornelia Bodea, (Center for Romanian Studies, Iasi, Oxford, Portland, 2000).

(Cornelia Bodea is a distinguished Romanian historian, member of the Romanian Academy, and author of many books and articles on Romanian history. [See also Dunham below]. Burton Yost Berry, 1901-1985, was the U.S. political representative on the Allied Control Commission in Romania, with the rank of Minister in the immediate post WW II period. He was accompanied by two other Foreign Service officers; the chief U.S. military representative on the Commissionwas Brig. General Cortland Van R. Schuyler.Berry’s diaries are an indispensable source for Soviet and U.S. policy on Romania and that country’s history in those crucial postwar years.)


Randolph L. Braham, ed., The Tragedy of Romanian Jewry, (East European Monographs no. 404, Boulder CO., and New York, 1994).

(Chapters on the inter-war and WWII periods, also communist and post-communist Romania by a specialist.)

Same, Randolph Braham, ed., The Treatment of the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania During the Post-Communist Era, (New York, NY, 2004.)


Silviu Brucan, The Wasted Generation. Memoirs of the Romanian Journey from Capitalism to Socialism and Back, (Boulder Co.,1993), ch. 1- 9..

(S. Brucan - born Saul Bruckner -- 1916-2006, was a Romanian diplomat-- ambassador to U.S. and United Nations-- a scholar, and a dissident in late 1980's, who participated in the overthrow of N. Ceausescu. This is a moving and honest personal memoir by a remarkable man.)

Pavel Campeanu, Ceausescu: From the End to the Beginnings, (New York, NY, 2003).


William E. Crowther, “Romania,” ch. 8 in: Sabrina P. Ramet, ed., Eastern Europe. Politics, Culture and Society since 1939, (Bloomington, IN., 1998), pp. 190-205; pp. 205-23 deal with the immediate post-communist era).

(A sketch of wartime and postwar, communist Romania. W.Crowther was then assoc. professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina. See also his book below; he has also written on post-communist parliaments in E. Europe. On Ramet, see notes on her books above.)


Same, The Political Economy of Romanian Socialism, (New York, 1986).


Dennis Deletant, Communist Terror in Romania: Gheorgiu-Dej and the Police State, 1948-1965,

(New York, 1999).

-(Gheorgiu-Dej was the head of the Romanian communist party in 1948-65.  Deletant is a historian of Romania, professor of Romanian Studies at University College, London.)


Donald Carl Dunham, Assignment in Bucharest: An American Diplomat’s View of the Communist Takeover of Romania, (Iasi, Romania, Portland, OR., 2000).

(Reminiscences of a U.S. diplomat; see Berry, above. D.C. Dunham, 1908-2001, was an American diplomat; see his autobiography; Envoy Unextraordinary, New York, 1944.)


David B. Funderburk, Pinstripes and Reds: An American Ambassador Caught Between the State Department and the Romanian Communists, 1981-1985, foreword by Philip Crane, (3rd printing, revised, Selous Foundation Press, Washington, D.C., 1989). 

(The author, b. 1944, gives valuable for information on U.S. policy and Romania in early 1980s.) 



Trond Gilberg, Nationalism and Communism in Romania: The Rise and Fall of Ceausescu’s Personal Dictatorship, (Boulder, CO., 1990).

(Reviwed in Foreign Affairs, Winter 1990.)


Dinu C. Giurescu, Romania’s Communist Takeover: The Radescu Government, (East European Monographs no. 388, Boulder CO., and New York, 1994).

( General Nicolae Radescu, 1874-1953, was allowed by Stalin to form a new government in late 1944. He tried to counter the growing communist dominance but was dismissed after suppressing a mass, communist-organized demonstration in Bucharest, March 1945. He fled to Cyprus, and to New York in 1947. Dinu Giurescu is a historian of modern Romania.)


David A. Kideckel, The Solitude of Collectivism: Romanian Villagers to the Revolution and Beyond, (Ithaca, N.Y., 1993).

(Study of social conditions in the Olt region of Romania in communist and immediately post-communist eras by an anthropologist ). 

Robert R. King, History of the Romanian Communist Party, (Stanford, CA., 1981).

(A good history through late 1970s. Robert Ray King, b. 1942, is an American political scientist specializing in East European communist regimes and nationality questions.)


Lt. General Ion Mihai Pacepa, Red Horizons. Chronicles of a Communist Spy Chief, (Washington, D.C., 1987).

(Fascinating account of Pacepa’sactivities under Romania’s communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu in the late 1970s. Pacepa, b. 1928, is the highest-rankning East European intelligence officer who defected to the U.S. in 1978. He tells of the dictator’s ties to other world leaders, especially the Palestinian Arafat and the Libyan Gadhafi. He wrote the book several years after the events he describes.)


Kurt von Treptow, ed., A History of Romania, (Iasi, 1997, pp. 502-553).

(Brief survey of the communist period by an American historian of Romania, who has written several other books on the country's history.)


Katherine Verdery, National Identity under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceausescu’s Romania, (Berkeley, CA., 1991.)

(Work by an American anthropologist specializing in Romania. Verdery is the Eric R. Wolf Professor of Antropology at the University of Michigan.)


Lidia Vianiu, Censorship in Romania, (Central European Press, Budapest, 1998).

(Romanian literature, history, criticism and censorship under communism. Vianu is professor of contemporary British literature in the English Dept., Bucharest University.)


(ii) The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 and Post-Communist Romania .


Edward Behr, Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite. The Rise and Fall of the Ceausescus,

(New York, 1991), ch. thirteen, fourteen, pp. 251-278..

(Gives a vivid account of the arrest and death of Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena in late December 1989. Edward Samuel Behr, 1926-2007, was a foreign correspondent and journalist. Born in Paris -- his parents were of Russian descent -- he served in the British Army during the war and obtained a Ph.D. in History from Magdalene College, Cambridge Univ. He wrote books, reports from several parts of the world, and a BBC documentary of Emperor Hirohito. Someone should write a biography of this extraordinary man.)


Randolph L. Braham, ed., The Tragedy of Romanian Jewry, (East European Monographs no. 404, Boulder CO., and New York, 1994.)

(Chapters on the inter-war, war and postwar period, also on Romanian Jews in the first post-communist decade and on Anti-Semitism in that decade by a specialist. Braham, b. 1992 in Bucharest, Romania, spent 2 years during the war in a forced labor under German and Hungarian rule in Ukraine, then two years in a Soviet Forced Labor Camp. After immigrating to the U.S. he completed his studies in New York and devoted himself to writing about the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania.)


Silviu Brucan, The Wasted Generation, (Boulder, CO., 1993, ch. 10), The Inside Story of the Revolution, ch. 11. The Day After, pp. 167-200; Epilogue, pp. 201-204.

(Authoritative account by a scholar,former diplomat and dissident, who was a participant in the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime in Bucharest, late December 1989. Compare and contrast with Codrescu. Brucan, b. Saul Bruckner, Bucharestm 1916, d. there 2006. See Wikipedia for details of his life.)

Andrei Codrescu, The Hole in the Flag. A Romanian Exile’s Story of Return and Revolution, (New York, 1991).

(A prominent American poet b. in Romania, recounts his experiences in the revolution and immediately after it, theorizing that the whole thing was “scripted like a Hollywood movie.” (?) Compare and contrast with Brucan. Codrescu immigrated to the U.S. in 1966 and was the Mac Curdy distinguished Professor of English t Louisiana State University until he retired in 2009. His lively, accented NPR talks on U.S. and international affairs were a pleasure to listen to. He covered the Romanian revolution for NPR and ABC Nightlin,e and received several awards for his poetry and news commentary.)


James K. McCallum, Is Communism Dead Forever? (Lanham, MD., 1998).

(On the legacy of communism in post-communist Romanian government and politics.. MacCullum has also writeen a travelogue on Romania. He is professor em. of Management at the University of Alabama at Huntsville.)

Tom Gallagher, Modern Romania. The end of Communism, the Failure of Democratic Reform and the Theft of a Nation (New York University Press, 2008, pb.)

(T.Gallagher, b. 1944, is an American politician, Rep., from Florida; the book was favorably reviewed in professional journals.)


Raoul Granqvist, Revolution’s Urban Landscape: Bucharest Culture and Postcommunist Change, (Frankfurt am Main, New York, 1999)

(Granvist is professor of Eng. Lit. Dept. of Modern Languages, UmeOE University, Sweden.).


Ion Iliescu, Romania at the Moment of Truth, trans. from French by Kristi Essick and Gonzalo Moreno, (Paris, 1994).

(The first post-communist Premier, and Premier again, this time by election in 2001, gives his version of the Romanian revolution which overthrew N. Ceausescu in late December 1989. B. 1930, he was a member of the Romanian Communist Party Central Committee 1965-89. After the overthrow of Ceausescu he proved a durable and skillful political leader, accused by some of retaining communist convictions. He was certauinly the most important Romanian politician after 1989.)

Vladimir Pasti, trans. from Romanian, The Challenges of Transition: Romania in Transition, (East European Monographs no. 473, Boulder CO., and New York, 1997).

(Politics and economics in post-communist Romania. Pasti, b. 1951, is a Romanian sociologist and political scientist, a specialist on Romanian political and social transition since 1989.)

Juliana Geran Pilon, The Bloody Flag: Post-Communist Nationalism in Eastern Europe: Spotlight on Romania, Foreword by Robert Conquest (Studies in Social Philosophy and Policy, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 1992.)

(The author, b. in Romania, immigrated to the US where she obtained her university degrees, with a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, 1974 She is a political scientist and has had a successful career as writer and analyst. See Wikipedia for details.).


Romania: Human Resources and the Transition to a Market Economy, (World Bank Country Study, Washington, D.C., 1992).

(Iincludes information on social conditions and social policy 1945-89.)

Lavinia Stan, ed., Romania in Transition, (Aldershot, England, Brookfield, VT., Dartmouth, U.S.A., 1997).


(Information and analysis of politics and government, economic conditions, in first post-communist years. L. Stan (Stan, born 1966, is political scientist. She is prof. of Political Science and director of St. Francis Xavier University, Montreal, Canada.)

same with Lucian Turcescu, Religion and Politics in Post-Communist Romania (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007).


d. Moldova 

NOTE: Moldova, formerly Bessarabia, was part of the Russian Empire 1812-1918, of Romania in 1918-40, annexed by USSR1940-41, retrieived by Romania 1941-44, re-annexed by USSR in 1945. After 1945, communist policy aimed at creating a Moldovan language --written in Cyrillic -- and an identity distinct from Romania . After the dissolution of the USSR Moldova became independent but has been ruled by pro-Russian commmunists whom the oppposition has been trying to overthrow. The elections of April 2009, won by the communists, sparked riots and an attack on parliament in protest against the allegedly faked communist victory. Four opposition parties united for the July 29,2009 elections and after it they hold 65 seats to the communists' 48 in the 101 parliament.The alphabet is Latin again. The opposition and much of Moldovan opinion want their extremely poor country to join the European Union. EU wants a stable government in Moldova. Aug. 18,2009).


Wim P. van Meurs, The Bessarabian Question in Communist Historiography: Nationalist and Communist Politics and History-Writing, (East European Monographs no. 337, Boulder CO., and New York, 1994.)

(The author is a policy analyst at the Center for Applied Policy Research, Munich and expert on Moldova.)

“Moldova: The Forgotten Republic,” Guest editor, Michael F. Hamm, Nationalities Papers, vol 26, no.1, 1998.

(Articles cover history, identity, languages, ethnic politics.The volume has an ethnic map of Moldova, and maps of Transinistria and ethnic distribution in Bessarabia, 1930.  Michael E.Hamm is professor of History at Centre College, Danville, KY, specializing in 19th– 20thc. urban studies in Ukraine, Russia and Moldova.)

e. Yugoslavia 1945 to 1989/90


(i) General.


Aleksa Djilas, The Contested Country. Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-1953,

(Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

(Excellent account of the Yugoslav communist movement’s policies toward the interwar Yug. state, the communists’ role in World War II; also on Serb and Croat political parties and federal Yugoslavism in 1943-53. Aleksa, son of Milovan Djilas, was at the Russian Research Center, Harvard University, 1987-94. (For the nationality problems of inte-war Yugoslavia, see: Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics, Ithaca, N.Y., 1984).


John R. Lampe, Yugoslavia in History. Twice There Was a Country, (2nd edition, Cambridge, England, 2000).

(A view of Yugoslav collapse in historical context. Chapter 1 is a sketch of the first thousand years, 800-1800; ch. 2, 3 cover the period 1800-1914; ch.4 is on World War I and the birth of the first Yugoslavia; ch. 5, 6, covers interwar Yugoslavia; ch. 7 deals with Yugoslavia in World War II and its civil war; ch. 8 10,cover Tito’s Yugoslavia, 1946-88; ch. 11 deals with ethnic politics and the end of Yugoslavia; ch.12 covers the ethnic wars and successor states, 1991-99.The book has photographs, several maps and useful demographic, economic, ethnic, and political tables, also a select bibliography in English and German. John R. Lampe is a specialist on Yugoslavia, prof. of History at the University of Maryland. See also his Balkans into Southeastern Europe. A Century of War and Transition, New York, 2006.)


(ii) Josip Broz Tito and postwar Yugoslavia, 1945-1980.


Ivo Banac, WITH STALIN AGAINST TITO. Cominformist Splits in Yugoslav Communism, (Ithaca and London, 1988).

(A masterly study of the internal, Yugoslav aspect of the Soviet-Yugoslav Split. Banac, b. 1947, is a Croatian politician and holds the Bradford Durfee chair of East European History, Yale University. He is a specialist in the history of Yugoslavia.)


Nora Beloff, Tito’s Flawed Legacy,. Yugoslavia and the West since 1939, (Boulder CO., London, 1985).

(Chs. 1-5 cover World War II; chs. 4-7, deal with Tito’s foreign and domestic policies from 1945 to his death in 1980. The late Nora Beloff, 1919-1997, was an outstanding British journalist specializing in international affairs; She was highly critical of Tito on all counts, and especially critical of British support for him in WW II. She had worked in Intelligence, British Foreign Office, 1941-44, so she knew whereof she spoke. See her Obit in New York Times, Feb. 23, 1997.)

Melissa K. Bokovoy, Peasants and Communists: Politics and Ideology in the Yugoslav Countryside, 1941-1953, (Pittsburgh, PA., 1998).

( M.K. Bokovoy, Indiana Univ. Bloomington, IN.,,PhD. 1991, is a historian of modern Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Russia, who teaches at the University of New Mexico. Tito imposed collectivization in 1949-50; however, bad harvests and low productivity led to a slow retreat from this type of agriculture.)

Same with Jill A. Irvine, Carol S. Lilly,  State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945-1992 (New York, 1997).


Vladimir Dedijer, The Battle Stalin Lost. Memoirs of Yugoslavia 1948-1953, (New York, 1971).

(Story of the Soviet-Yugoslav Split, 1948, by an insider. Dedijer, 1914-1990,was a Lt. Colonel in Tito’s Partisan force in World War II, later held ministerial and diplomatic posts in the Yugoslav government. A journalist and historian, he was moved to write this book by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and dedicated it to Jan Palach, the student who burned himself in protest against it in Jan. 1969. He also published what is probably the best study of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, June 28, 1914: The Road to Sarajevo, New York, 1966. Another outstanding book is his The Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican. The Croatian Massacre of the Serbs during World War II, ) although his estimate of 700,000 dead is questionable.Very good on Soviet-Yugoslav relations in the immediate postwar period is his: The Battle Stalin Lost. Memoirs of Yugoslavia, 1948-1953, New York, 1971.)


Milovan Djilas, The New Class. An Analysis of the Communist System, (New York, 1962).

(This book, a crushing indictment of the Yugoslav communist system, was first published in Eng. translation in 1957, of which this is a revised, corrected edition. Djilas, 1911- 1995, a long- time Yugoslav communist,a close collaborator of Tito in the partisan warfare of World War II, and once the vice-President of Yugoslavia, turned against his old friend and his system, for which he paid with several years of prison. The books inspired criticism of the communist system in Soviet bloc countries, esp. in Poland.See also his follow-up: After the New Class.)

Same, TITO. The Story from Inside, translated by Vasilije Kojic and Richard Hayes,(New York, 1980).

(Djilas’s explanation of why Tito fell from power and the reasons for his ideological departure from communism. The book is a bitter indictment of Tito.)

John R. Lampe, Russell O. Prickett, and Ljubisa Adamovic, Yugoslav-American Economic Relations since World War II, (Durham, N.C., 1990). 


Veljko Micunovic, MOSCOW DIARY, trans. David Floyd, Foreword, George F. Kennan, (Garden City, N.Y., 1980).

(Memoirs of the Yugoslav ambassador in Moscow, 1956-58 and 1969-71. Micunovic gives a fascinating picture of Khrushchev’s Moscow, and valuable information on Soviet-Yugoslav relations during his two stays in the Soviet capital.) 


John H.Moore, Growth and Self-Management: Yugoslav Industrialisation, 1952-1975, (Stanford, CA., 1980).

( The author is prof. of Anthropology at the Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FLA. NOTE: the Yugoslav economy began a precipitous decline from 1980 onward.)


Bogdan C. Novak, TRIESTE 1941-1954. The Ethnic, Political and Ideological Struggle,

(Chicago and London, 1970).

(Chs. 1-6 give the history of the Trieste question to 1945. Chs. 7-15 tell the story of the struggle over the city between the Allies, then Italy, on one hand, and Tito’s Yugoslavia on the other, ending in the compromise agreement of October 1954. Novak, who received a Law Degree from the University of Ljubljana, obtained his Ph.D. in History from the University of Chicago, and taught for many years at the University of Toledo, of which he is now professor emeritus. This is a classic study of a little known territorial dispute; see also Rabel.)


Steven K. Pavlowitch, TITO. Yugoslavia’s Great Dictator. A Reassessment, (Columbus, OH., 1992).

(The author blames the British for helping Tito come to power. He concludes this brief study by claiming that Western governments had propped up Tito’s Yugoslavia for 40 years, thus allowing it to postpone needed economic and political reforms. At the same time, the political system failed to provide the freedom needed to sort out national problems allowing all to live together in peace. [But democracy brought on a series of ethnic wars, AMC.] Pavlowitch, author of several historical studies of the Balkans, teaches Balkan History at the University of Southampton, England. See also N. Beloff and M. Djilas books on Tito, above and the Richard West study below.)

Same. The Improbable Survivor. Yugoslavia and its Problems, 1918-1988, (Columbus, Oh., 1988).


Roberto G. Rabel, Between East and West: Trieste, the United States, and the Cold War, 1941-1954, (Durham, N.C., 1988.See also Novak, above).

(Rabel is a historian of the Cold War, who teaches at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand)


Sabrina P. Ramet, Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia, 1962-91, (Bloomington, IN., 1992).

(Ramet is a specialist on 20th c. Yugoslavia, who then taught International Relations at the University of Washington, Seattle. For current information, see earlier listings.) 

Geoffrey Swain, “The Cominform: Tito’s International?” The Historical Journal, Britain, vol. 33, no. 3, 1992, pp. 641-663.

(A British historian emphasizes Tito’s ideology in launching a communist offensive against the West, while Stalin espoused caution. This is a valuable contribution to the study of the Soviet-Yugoslav Split. For current inf. on author see earlier.)


“The Tito-Stalin Correspondence, March - June 1948,” in: Gale Stokes, ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism. A Documentary History of Eastern Europe since 1945, (2nd edition, New York, Oxford, 1995), ch. 9, introd. p. 57; texts pp. 58 - 65.

(Key correspondence on the Soviet-Yugoslav Split, 1948. Stokes is the Prof. Em. Mary Gibbs Jones of History and a former chair of the History Dept., Rice University, TX.)


Wayne S. Vucinich, ed., At the Brink of War and Peace; The Tito-Stalin Split in Historical Perspective, (East European Monographs, Boulder CO. and New York, 1982).

(Useful work on the Soviet-Yugoslav Split, 1948 written by a prominent American historian of the Balkans and Yugoslavia.  Vucinich, 1913-2005, is considered a founding father of Russian and East European Studies in post-WW II U.S; he taught for many years at Stanford University. For more inf. see earlier listing.)


Richard West, TITO and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia, (New York, 1994).

(The author criticizes the negative evaluations of Tito by Djilas and Pavlowitch. He sees the breakup of Yugoslavia not as due to Tito’s policies, but to the deep “fault lines” marking religious differences: between the Catholics and the Orthodox, also between both of the latter and the Moslems (ch. 17). Richard West writes for leading English papers and lives in London. )


Susan L. Woodward, Socialist Unemployment: The Political Economy of Yugoslavia, 1945-90,

Princeton, N.J., 1995.



(iii) The Breakup of Yugoslavia.



The wars that accompanied the breakup of Yugoslavia resulted in a flood of books and articles on the subject, vastly outnumbering studies on the generally peaceful (except Romania and Albania) transition to democracy and a market economy in other East European countries. The works listed below are a selection by the compiler of this bibliography. Brief analysis of the breakup is to be found in the works of John R. Lampe, Steven K. Pavlowitch and Richard West, listed in section (c) above, also in those of Janusz Bagielski and Michael Ignatieff, listed. in The Balkans since 1945 Surveys, at the beginning of section 7. See also periodicals: Nationalities Papers, and East European Politics and Societies.


John B. Allcock, John J. Horton and Marko Milivojevic, eds., Yugoslavia in Transition, (New York, 1992).

(An early assessment. J.B. Allcock teaches at Bradford Univ., England).


Same, eds., Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia. An Encyclopedia, (ABC Clio Press, Santa Barbara, CA., 1998).

(Very useful historical dictionaries of the wars, 1991-95, of Yugoslav history, and of the former Yugoslav republics.)


John B. Allocock, Explaining Yugoslavia, (New York, 2000).

Country Report: Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia-Montenegro, Slovenia,

(The Economist Intelligence Unit, London, 1993-95.)


Christopher Cviic, Remaking the Balkans, (London, revised edition, 1995).

(A Royal Institute of International Affairs --Chatham House --study the Yugoslav collapse, the war in Bosnia, and their implications for Europe. The booklet has a good, select bibliography. Cviic, b. in Croatia, is a Senior Adviser to the Br. govt., and holder of an M.B.E.)


Lenard J. Cohen, Broken Bonds. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia, Boulder, (CO., 1993).

(Ch. 1 covers the evolution of the Yugoslav idea, 1830-1980; ch. 2-7 cover the background of the civil war; ch. 8 deals with the violent dissolution of Yugoslavia and international response; ch. 9 discusses Yugoslavism’s failure and future. The book has tables, maps, and illustrations. Lenard J. Cohen, author of 2 earlier books on Yugoslavia, is a professor em. of Political Science, Simon Fraser University; in 2009, director, International Studies Centre, there .) 


Same, Broken Bonds. The Yugoslavia’s Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition, (2nd ed. Boulder, CO., 1995).

(A revised and enlarged version of the book listed above.)

Same, Serpent in the Bosom. The Rise and Fall of Slobodan Milosevich (Boulder, CO, 2,000)


Misha Glenny, THE FALL OF YUGOSLAVIA. The Third Balkan War, (3rd revised and updated edition, London, New York, 1996).

(Excellent book by a British journalist, former BBC correspondent, b. 1958, who traveled around the country during Yugoslavia’s dissolution in war. Glenny also wrote a book on the history of the Balkans, 1804-1999, see beginning of section 7 above).


James Gow, Triumph of the Lack of Will: International Diplomacy and the Yugoslav War, (New York, 1997).

(Study of western dithering as the slaughter went on, with emphasis on the international ramifications of the Yugoslav wars in the post-Cold War period.

Gow has written on the break- up of Yugoslavia, also on Iraq and the Gulf War, and co-authored a book on Slovenia with Cathie Carmichael, 2000.)

Robert M. Hayden, "'Genocide Denial' Laws as Secular Heresy: A Critical Analysis with Reference to Bosnia," Slavic Review, vol. 67, no. 2, summer 2008, pp. 384-407.


Tim Judah, THE SERBS. History, Myth & the Destruction of Yugoslavia, (New Haven, London, 1997).

(A significant part of the book deals with the historical background, first with Serb history and its interpretation, also Serb migrations from south to north, from earliest times to 1945, then with Tito’s Yugoslavia, and finally with the wars that accompanied its dissolution. This is a masterly, excellently written account of Serbian nationalism. Tim Judah, a graduate of the London School of Economics and of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, has worked for the BBC and reported on the Balkans for the Times of London and the Economist. He is a free lance writer and lives in London. He has also written books on Kosovo.)


The Other Balkan Wars. A 1913 Carnegie Endowment Inquiry in Retrospect, with a New Introduction by George F. Kennan, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, D.C., 1996).

(A useful reminder of the lst and 2nd Balkan Wars as reported in the Carnegie Institute report of 1913. George F. Kennan, 1904-2005, was a diplomat, a well known American expert on the USSR and Russia, author of the 1946 proposal to recognize the post World War II Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, but to “contain” the USSR so that it could not expand further West, see the "X" article in Foreign Affairs, 1947. At 92, he opposed the expansion of NATO into Eastern Europe. He did not think the U.S. should be involved in the Yugoslav wars. On these and other asepcts of Kennan, see Richard Holbrooke's obit, "The Paradox of George F. Kennan," Washington Post, March 21, 2005, p. A19.)


Aleksandar Pavkovic, ed., “The Disintegration of Yugoslavia: Inevitable or Avoidable?” Nationalities Papers Special Topica Issue, vol. 25, no. 3, 1997.

(Articles by experts. Al. Pavkovic teaches at the Centre for Slavonic and East European Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. He has also published a book on contemporary Yugoslav philosophy, 2006.

Part I deals with the “Rise and Fall of Yugoslavism;”. Pt. II covers “The Politics of Disintegration;” and pt. III deals with International Reactions to it. )

Sabrina Petra Ramet, BALKAN BABEL. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to Ethnic War, (2nd edition, Boulder, CO.,1996. Foreword on “The Politics of Cultural Diversity in Former Yugoslavia” by Ivo Banac, Yale University).

(Excellent coverage of the topic up to late 1994. Ch. 1-3 give the political background, 1980-91; ch.4-6 cover culture and society; ch. 7-9 deal with religion; ch.10-14, cover dissolution and ethnic war. The book has tables on public opinion polls; women; believers and unbelievers; ethnic percentages; military strength of rival forces and western forces: UNPROFOR, in Dec. 1994. S.P. Ramet, a prolific author and editor of books on Eastern Europe, especially Yugoslavia, was then professor of International Studies at the University of Washington, Seattle. For current status see earlier listing.)


Catherine Samary, Yugoslavia Dismembered, trans. Peter Drucker, (New York, 1995).

(Analysis by a French specialist who sees the explosion of ethnic nationalism and ethnic racism in Yugoslavia, as in France, in the context of the economic transition to capitalism which resulted in the suffering of a large part of the population. Samary, who teaches economics at the University of Paris IX - Dauphine, has traveled extensively in the lands of former Yugoslavia and writes for Le Monde Diplomatique.)


Laura Silber and Allan Little, YUGOSLAVIA. Death of a Nation, (London, New York, 1995, updated and revised, 1996, 1997.)

(Excellent study by two British journalists, with a few photographs. The book was the basis for an outstanding BBC video with the same title.)


Svetozar Stojanovic, THE FALL OF YUGOSLAVIA.Why Communism Failed, (Amhurst, N.Y., 1997).

(A philosophical-political study by a prominent Yugoslav (Serb) philosopher and critic of Communism, who was also involved in politics. From mid-1992 to mid-1993, he served as the chief advisor of Dobrica Cosic, then President of what remained of Yugoslavia, and participated in negotiations conducted by Cyrus Vance and Lord Robert Owen. Later, he was advisor to the democratic opposition to Slobodan Milosevic and his authoritarian regime, which finally collapsed in October 2000. Stojanovic, b. 1931 in Kragujevac, Yugoslavia, the author of several books, was for many years a visiting professor of Philosophy at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.)

same, Serbia. The Democratic Revolution, (Amherst,N.Y., 2003).

(Review by Robert Levgold, Foreign Affairs, Nov/Dec. 2003).


Unfinished Peace. Report on the International Commission on the Balkans, with a foreword by Leon Tindemans, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, D.C., 1996).

(Covers the Bosnian War and the Serb-Croat war in Croatia; peace plans; policies of European states, the U.S. Russia, the United Nations; Western policy errors; conditions, trends and proposals regarding Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo, the Albanians, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey; also conclusions and proposals; see also: The Other Balkan Wars.)


Susan L. Woodward, BALKAN TRAGEDY. Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War, (Washington, D.C., 1995).

(Detailed study written for the Brookings Institution, completed in early 1995, by an American specialist on Yugoslavia who had published an earlier book on: Socialist Unemployment. The Political Economy of Yugoslavia, 1945-1990, Princeton, N.J., 1991.

The author served in 1994 as a senior adviser to Yasuchi Akashi, the top U.N. official in former Yugoslavia and special representative there of U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. )


Warren Zimmerman, Origins of a Catastrophe. Yugoslavia and Its Destroyers - America’s Last Ambassador Tells What Happened and Why, (New York,1996).

(The author, who lived in 1934-2004, had an emotional attachment to the former, multi-national Yugoslavia. He believed that the destruction of this country did not result from religious differences and ethnic hatreds, the end of the Cold War, or western failures, but from the actions of nationalist leaders, a point of view different from other Balkan specialists. Warren Zimmerman served in Yugoslavia in the 1960s and was the U.S. Ambassador there in 1989-92. He left the Foreign Service in 1994 and taught International Diplomacy at Columbia University, New York.)



(iv) The War in Bosnia.


Robert J. Donia & John V.A. Fine, Jr., BOSNIA & HERCEGOVINA. A Tradition Betrayed,

(New York, 1994).

(ch. 1-10 give the history of multinational Bosnia; ch.11, traces the descent into war. R.J. Donia is the author of a book about the Muslims of Bosnia up to 1914; he teaches the History of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia at the University of Michigan,Ann Arbor. John V.A. Fine, the author of a 2 vol. history of the medieval Balkans and a study on the Bosnian Church, is professor of Balkan and Byzantine History at the same University. )

Robert J. Donia, Sarajevo: A Biography (University of Michigan, Press, 2006).


Richard Holbrooke, TO END A WAR, (New York, 1998).

(By the U.S. diplomat who was the chief architect of the Dayton (Ohio) Agreements of Nov.21, 1995, worked out with the Serbian leader, Slobodan Milosevic, who had supported the sending of Yugoslav (Serb) troops into Croatia and backed the Serbian nationalists in Bosnia until he realized that this was a lost cause. The agreements established a makeshift peace in Bosnia but left the Kosovo question unresolved because Milosevic would not discuss it.) 


Willem Honig, Robert Both, Srebrenica. Record of a War Crime, (New York, London, 1996).

(Detailed account of the largest and most horrific Serb massacre of Bosniak (Moslem) prisoners of war, whose architect, General Radko Mladic, declared a war criminal, was still living unharmed in 2009 either in the Serb “republic” of Pale, or hiding in Belgrade. The authors are experts on the Bosnian war.)


David Owen, Balkan Odyssey, (New York, San Diego, London, 1995). 

(Lord Owen,, a British politician, b. 1938, worked with U.S. diplomat Cyrus Vance and U.N. diplomat Thornvald Stoltenberg to find a solution to the Bosnian conflict. He came to know the main actors in the war and witnessed the suffering. The book has a list of the chief actors, a chronology, a list of abbreviations, illustrations (photos) and maps. Owen and Vance worked out schemes to divide Bosnia into coherent ethnic provinces within a Bosnian state. However, British and U.S. policymakers did not support these projects seeing them as sanctioning Serb victory. Instead, they favored a return to the former multi-ethnic Bosnian state and thus the return of refugees to areas from which they had fled. The government system createdin November 1995 (see Holbrooke above), does not work well and peace is maintained to this day by national contingents of U.N.troops.)

Mark Pinson, ed., The Muslims of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Their Historic Deveopment from the Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia, with a foreword by Roy P. Mottahedeh, (Cambridge, Mass., 2nd. edition, 1996).

(Conference papers by experts. Ch. 1- 4 cover the history of this people to 1918; ch. 5 covers the period 1918-1992. The appendix gives paper and electronic sources for information on Bosnia; maps are on p. 181. 

[NOTE: on the history of Muslim populations in the Balkans and Muslim minorities in Balkan countries today, see: Nationalities Papers, vol. 28, no. 1, March 2000].


(v) Croatia and its war with Yugoslavia.


Marcus Tanner, CROATIA. A Nation Forged in War, (New Haven and London, 1997).

Ch. 1-14 recount Croatian history through the death of Tito in 1980. ch. 15-19 cover the approach to war, victory, and the rule of President Franjo Tudjman through 1996. The book has illustrations, maps, notes and a select bibliography. M.Tanner was the Balkan correspondent of the Times of London in 1988-94, and its asst. foreign editor in 1997.


Same, "Karadzic, the psychiatrist who became a genocidal madman," The Independent, July 22, 2008.

(Radovan Karadzic, b. 1945, a trained psychiatrsit, was Serb nationalist leader who worked closely with gen. Radko Mladic and was co-responsible for massacres of Bosnian Moslems. He hid for years in Belgrade, dsiguised with a large beard, and worked as a doctor in alternative medicine under the name of Dr. Dragan David Dabic.. He was finally identified and arrested in July 2008, after which he was taken to the prison attached to the International Criminal Tribunal, the Hague, to stand trial for his cirmes. At his two appearaneces before the court, he refused to plead either guilty or innocen and the judge entered a not-guilty plea for him. The trial is supposed to begin on October 19, 2009,)

(vi) Kosovo and the Albanian Kosovars’war with Yugoslavia.


Tim Judah, KOSOVO. War and Revenge, (New Haven, London, 2000).

(Excellent study by an expert. Tim Judah, educated in history and politics is a London-based journalist who authored the highly acclaimed book: The Serbs. History, Myth & the Destruction of Yugoslavia, New Haven, London, 1997. His book on Kosovo includes appendices on Kosovo population censuses, 1948-51, and the U.N. Council Resolution 1244 adopted by the Security Council, 10 June, 1999. There is a select bibliography.) 


Noel Malcolm, KOSOVO. A Short History, (New York, 1998).

(Excellent, well written history through 1997. Malcolm, b. 1956, is an English historian and writer. He is also the general editor for the Clarendon edition of the complete works of Thomas Hobbes.)


United States. President Clinton, A Report on the Situation in Kosovo, House 

Document, U.S.Congress, 106-80,(Washington, D.C., 1999).


(vii) Macedonia before and after its secession from Yugoslavia.


Elizabeth Donnelly Carney, Women and Monarchy in Macedonia, (Norman, OK., 2000).

(On queens of Macedonia, women in M. public life.) 


Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, Macedonian Republic, Skopje, (1991).


Country Profile: Macedonia, Serbia-Montenegro, (The Economist Intelligence Unit, London, c. 1994-95). 

(This is a companion volume to: Country Report. Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia-Montenegro, Slovenia.)


Loring M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, (Princeton, N.J., 1995).

(Studies of nationalism and ethnic relations in Macedonia, Greece, and immigrants in Australia; see Robert Levgold review in Foreign Affairs, March/April 1996. Danforth teaches at Bates College, ME, where he is chair of the Dept. of Anthropology.


Evgeni Dimitrov, et al., Macedonia and its Relations with Greece, (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, 1993).

(By Macedonian scholars. See also books by Kofos and Shea below.)


The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C., 1994).



The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Recent Economic Developments, prepared by Messrs. Sanjay Kalra et al., International Monetary Fund; (series: IMF Staff Country Report no. 95/50,Washington, D.C., 1995).


Valentina Georgieva and Sasha Konechni, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, (Lanham, MD., 1998).

(Very useful.)


Dimitar G. Gotsev, New National-Liberation Struggle in Vardar-Macedonia: 1944-1991, (Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofia, 1991).

(On Bulgarians in Macedonia.)


Evangelos Kofos, Nationalism and Communism in Macedonia, (Institute of Balkan Studies, Thesssaloniki, 1964).

(Ch. I - VI cover the history through World War II; ch. VII deals with the Liberation of Macedonia through the Tito-Cominform Split of 1948.. In both the WW II and post World War II period, the author focuses on the attitudes and polices of the Greek Communist Party toward the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. ch. VIII is titled “The Decline of the Controversy,” and covers the Greek Communist Party’s relations with Yugoslavia and Greece, also Macedonia in Yugoslav-Bulgarian relations through 1962. The book has several maps, a glossary of terms used, and a bibliography.)


James Pettifer, ed.,The New Macedonian Question, (New York, 1999).

(On the nature of new M. question, politics and government, ethnic relations. Pettifer, an expert on the modern Balkans, has also written on Albania,. see review by Loring F. Danforth, Slavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, 2000, pp. 654-655. The author, b. 1949, is a British academic, author and journalist specializing in the Balkans. He has written a book on the history of Albania with Miranda Vickers and tourist guides to some B. countries.)


Hugh Poulton, Who are the Macedonians? (Bloomington, IN., 2nd ed., 2000).

(A general, popular introduction to history and ethnic relations in Macedonia. See reviewe in Central Europe Review, vol. 3, no. 6, 12 Feb. 2001.)


John Shea, Macedonia and Greece: the Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, (Jefferson, N.C., 1997).


(See also:U.S. Congress, House documents, U.S. President Clinton, 1993-2000.)


Abiodun Williams, Preventing War: the United Nations and Macedonia, (Lanham, MD., 2000).

(On peace-keeping forces in Macedonia. The author is vice president of the Center for Conflict Analysis and Prevention)


(viiiSlovenia as a Yugoslav Republic and its independence from Yugoslavia.


Jill Benderly and Evan Kraft, eds., INDEPENDENT SLOVENIA. Origins, Movements, Prospects, (New York, 1994, 1996.)

(By various authors, specialists in Slovenian history, economics, politics and culture. Section 1, Origins, ch. 1-4, covers origins to 1945; Slovenes of Yugoslavia; 20th c. economic history; culture, politics and Slovene identity; Sec. 2, Movements, ch. 5-8, has chapters on social movements to national sovereignty, women and Slovene independence, strikes, trade unions, and Slovene indepenence; Sec. 3, ch. 9-11, Prospects, covers Slovenia’s shift from the Balkans to Central Europe, the economy of independent Slovenia, and quasi privatization. The book has maps and a list of basic facts about Slovenia. Each chapter has a short bibliography, and there are biographical notes on the contributors. 

Jill Benderly is an independent scholar and writer focusing on social movements in former Yugoslavia, has lived in that country and its successor states; she is the founder and regional director of the World of Learning/STAR Network.

Evan Kraft was then asst. professor of Economics at the Franklin R. Perdue School of Business, at Salisbury State Univrsity, Salisbury, Maryland.)


James Gow and Kathie Carmichael, Slovenia and the Slovenes, (Bloomington, IN., 2000).


F. The Three Baltic States: Under Soviet Rule, Toward Independence from the USSR, Independence and After. 


1. All Three States.


Baltic Assembly, Tallinn, May 13-14, 1989, (Trans. into English by the Popular Front of Estonia, Tallinn, 1989).

(Joint plenary session of the Councils of the Popular Fronts of Estonia, Latvia and the Siemas of the Lithuanian Sajudis movement, held to coordinate their activities and popularize their goal of independence from the USSR. This publication has the final version of documents adopted by the Assembly, which were published in the three Baltic languages.)


W. Robert Brubaker, “Citizenship Struggles in Soviet Successor States,” International Migration Review, vol. 26, 1992, pp. 269-91.

(The focus is on the citizenship problems in Estonia and Latvia, which have a high percentage of Russians due to the Soviet policy of settling Russians there since the annexation of these states after World War II. )


Walter C. Clemens, Jr. Baltic Independence and Russian Empire, (New York, 1991).

(Ch. 1-3 give the historical background through the Stalinist period, to 1953; ch. 5 deals with Gorbachev’s inheritance: 1955-85; ch. 6-14 cover the movement to independence; ch. 14-16 Russian dilemmas, implications for the West, and the hard road to independence. The book has a glossary of abbreviations, notes at the end of each chapter, and an index. It is one of the earliest accounts and assessments of the topic. Walter C. Clemens Jr. is professor of Political Science at Boston University, also an associate at the Harvard University Center for Science and International Affairs and the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies. He has published books on the arms race, Sino-Soviet relations, arms control, and the USSR.)

Same, The Baltic Transformed. Complexity Theory, and European Security, (Rowman & Littlefield), Blue Ridge Summit, PA., 2000). 

(Clemens uses complexity theory to explain why developments in the Baltic region did not follow a similar line as those in the Balkans.) 

Dovile Budryte, Taming Nationalism? Political Community in the Post-Soviet Batlic States (Burlington, VT., 2005).

(see also his book on Estonia.)


John Hiden, Patrick Salmon, The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century, (London, New York, 1991).

(By two British experts on the history of the Baltic region. See also Hiden's book: The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War, Cambridge, England, 2003)

Timothy Lawrence, A Chronology of the Baltic Republics, 1987-91, (Manchester, Dept. of Government, Victoria University, 1991 (?).

(Shows the growing role of Baltic States in Soviet politics at this time.)


Anatol Lieven, THE BALTIC REVOLUTION. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, (New Haven and London, 1993).

(By far the best book on the subject until that time-- it received two prestigious prizes -- although the author is somtimes a little patronising and readers will have to look elsewhere for developments since 1992. Ch., 1- 2 summarize the history of the 3 nations up to their independence in 1918. ch. 3 covers the independent states 1918-40 and their annexation by the USSR that year; ch. 4 deals with their history in WW II, renewed annexation by USSR, resistance, Stalinisation, and dissident movements; ch.5 covers national myths and rebirth; ch. 6 deals with the 3 states’ “half forgotten nationalities:” the Baltic Germans, the Jews, and Poles; ch. 7 covers the Baltic Russians; ch. 8 discusses the Independence Movements and their success, 1987-92; ch. 9 covers the Recreation of the New States and the Conclusion deals with The West and the Baltic States. The book has appendices containing a historical chronology, 3,500 b.c. to 1983 a.d; a contemporary chronology, 1985-92; demography and geography; the economies on the eve of the National Revolutions, 1989-90, and a biographical guide to historical figures, 1988-92. There are notes to the chapters and an index. 

Anatol Lieven, b. 1960, a descendant of the princely Russian Lieven family, was born and educated in England. He has written for English newspapers, was based in the Baltic States between Feb.1990 and Oct. 1992, and at the time of publication, was a correspondent of the London Times in Moscow. He has also published books on America, Ukraine, and Chechnya and is now chair of International Relations and Terrorism Studies at King's College, London.) 

Dovile Budryte, Taming Nationalism? Political Community Building in the Post-Soviet Baltic States (Burlington, VT,2005).

(Reviewed by Kristian Gerner, Slavic Review, v. 66, no. 1, spring 2007, pp. 140-141. The author teaches at Georgia Gwinnet College. See also her chapter [2] on gender violence in Armenia and Lithuania in Feminist Conversations, University Press of America, 2009, of which she is a co-editor.)


Dietrich A. Loeber, Laurence P. Kitching and V. Stanley Vardys, Regional Identity under Soviet Rule: The Case of the Baltic States, (Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies, Kiel, Germany, Hackettstown, N.J., 1990).

(Updated papers on various aspects of Baltic States in the period 1956-86, including 12 “samizdat” documents, read at a conference held at Kiel University, 1987. )

Romuald J. Misiunas, Rein Taagepera, The Baltic States: Years of Dependence 1940-1980, (London, 1983).

(The book covers four main periods: 1940-45, 1945-52, 1954-68, and 1968-80. The authors point out that political annexation did not mean cultural assimilation.  R. Taagepera, b. Tartu, Estonia, 1933, was then professor of Social Science at the University of California. See John C. Campbell review in Foreign Affairs, Fall 1983.)

Kevin C. O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States (Westport, CT., 2003).

Same, Culture and Customs of the Baltic States (Wesrport, CT., 2006).

(O'Connor was at this time Asst. Prof. of History, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WASH.)

Andrejs Plakans, “An Historical Introduction,” in: Inesse A. Smith and Marita V. Grunts, The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, vol. 161, World Bibliographical Series (Clio Press, Oxford, England, Santa Barbara, California, Denver Colorado, 1993, pp. xiii - xxxv).

(Prof. Plakans, born in Latvia and now Prof. Em. Dept. of History, Iowa University, gives an excellent historical sketch of the of the Baltic region through 1992.)

Toivo U. Raun,Baltic Independence, 1917-1920 and 1988-1994,(Indiana University, 1994).

(For biography see under Estonia, below).

David J. Smith, The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (London, 2002).


Graham Smith, ed., THE BALTIC STATES. The National Self-Determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, (London, New York, 1994, reprint, 1996).

(Part I “From National Awakening to Incorporation,” covers the interwar period, Soviet annexation and the Soviet Republics; Pt. II. “ From National Awakening to Statehood,” covers the path to Independence with the restructuring and problems that followed. The book has information on the contributors, a list of figures, also several tables on economics, social structure, linguistic affiliations, nationality composition of cities, statehood and language issue, citizenship requirements and Russian response to citizenship laws.

Graham Smith was, at the time of publication, Lecturer in Geography at the University of Cambridge and Director of the Post-Soviet States Research Programme, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; he is the author of several books on the USSR and the nationalities question in Post-Soviet States. )

Saulius Suziedelis, ed., History and Commemoration in the Baltic: the Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939-1989 (Chicago, Lithuanian-American Community, 1989).

  (Suziedelis, b. 1945, obtained his Ph.d. in History at the University of Kansas; prof. em. History Dept., Millersville University, PA; author of the Historical Dictionary of Lithuania, vol. 21, Lanham, MD 1997, and editor of t The Journal of Baltic Affairs; he was president of the American Council of Learned Societies in 2008.

Anders Uhlin, Post-Soviet Civil Society. Democratization in Russia and the Baltic States (London, 2007).



a. Estonia: Communist and post-Communist.


Anu Avi, Kaupo Hell, Heiki Pisuke, Estonia’s Way to Independence: A Short Overview of the Legal Developments in Estonian State Status from November 1988 to January 1991, (Tartu, Estonia, 1991).

(How the Estonian Soviet Republic became the independent Republic of Estonia; appendices have documents on the process both for Estonia, as well as Latvia and Lithuania. Compiled with historical introduction by members of the Laboratory of Legal Aspects of International Relations, University of Tartu.)



Geoffrey Hosking, “Popular Movements in Estonia,” in: same with Jonathan Aves and Peter J.S. Duncan, The Road to Post-Communism: Independent Political Movements in the Soviet Union 1985-1991, (London and New York 1992), pp. 189-201.

(Emphasizes the role of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Intelligentsia in organizing protests and petitions on environmental issues, then movements for independence. G. Hosking, b. Scotland, 1942, a distinguished historian, has published many works on the history of the USSR and Russia, also on their literature and religion. He retired from teaching at SEES, University of London, in Dec. 2007.)


Andreas Park and Rein Ruutsoo, eds., Visions and Policies: Estonia’s Path to Independence and Beyond, 1987-1993, -Nationalities Papers Special Topic Issue vol. 23, no. 1, 1993.

(Pt. I, is titled: “Estonia’s Path to Identity and Independence,” with articles on politics, economics, society, culture, and historical identity; Pt. II. “Competing Visions of an Estonian Future,”covers political parties and their programs, also the Russian Assembly and the Union of Slavic Cultural and Charity Societies. There is a list of basic data and notes on the contributors at the beginning of the volume, and a Chronology in the appendix. 

Andreas Park was then Head of the Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, Estonian Academy of Sciences; Rein Ruutsoo was Senior Research Fellow, Institute of International and Social Studies, Estonian Academy of Sciences. The other authors are also Estonian scholars.)


Tony Parming and Elmar Javersoo, eds. A Case Study of a Soviet Republic: The Estonian SSR, foreword by Edward Allworth, (Boulder, CO., 1978). 

David J. Smith, Estonia: Independence and European Integration (London, 2002).

Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians (Stanford, CA., 2nd ed. 1991, 3rd ed. 2001).

(Part One covers Estonia to 1710; Pt. Two, Estonia in Imperial Russia; Pt Three, Independent Estonia, 1918-40; Pt. Four deals with Estonia under Soviet rule through 1985. The revised editions have a chapters on the road to Independence and independent Estonia. T. Raun was born in Estonia and educated in the U.S. He teaches in the Dept. of Central Eurasian Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.)

same, "Soviet Deportations in Estonia: impact and legacy; articles and life histories," in Kristi Kukk, et al., Ethnicity (Indiana Univ., 1994.)

Jean-Jacques Surenat, ed., Estonia: Identity and Independence, (Amsterdam, 2004).;

(Sse review by John Hiden in Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 2, summer 2005, pp. 434-435. Surenat is a French diplomat who was French ambassador to Estonia in 1998-2002.)

Rein Taagepera, “A Note on the March 1989 Elections in Estonia,” Soviet Studies, vol. 42, no. 3, 1990, pp. 329-39.

(On the Estonian election of deputies to the Supreme Soviet, March 26, 1989.)


Same, ESTONIA. Return to Independence, (Boulder, CO., 1993).

(Ch. 1 discusses Estonia’s role in the World; ch. 2, From Prehistory to World War I; ch. 3. Independence to World War II; ch.4. The Soviet Occupation, 1945-80; ch. 5-7 trace the road to independence; ch. 8 covers independent Estonia through 1992. The book has notes to chapters,basic data on the country, a chronology, and a note on the book and its author.)


Same, Softening without Liberalization in the Soviet Union: the Case of Juri Kukk, (Lanham, MD., 1984).

(The story of Estonian scientist Juri Kukk, who was confined in a psychiatric hospital allegedly for criticizing the Soviet system, and died in a Soviet labor camp at age 41.)




Helene Celmina, Women in Soviet Prison, (New York, 1986).

(Eng. trans. from Latvian, illustrated with author’s drawings, portraits and diagrams. The author was sentenced to work in a Soviet labor camp as punishment for possession of foreign periodicals -- even though she was a translator. She wrote this book after she left the USSR for the West.)


Juris Dreifelds, Latvia in Transition (London, Cambridge, 1996).

Olgierds Eglitis, Nonviolent Action in the Liberation of Latvia, ( Einstein Monograph Series no. 5, Cambridge, Mass.1993.)

(Focuses on dissident activities since 1987 and gives an account of political action through independence in August 1991. Appendices have documents on appeals and policy, also instructions for defense of the Old Town Riga, during the battle with Soviet troops, January 1991. )


Mark Jubulis, Latvia in Transition: The Politics of Citizenship and Language in Post-Soviet Latvia (Lanham MD, 2007).


Rasma Karkins, Ethnic Politics and Transition to Democracy: The Collapse of the USSR and Latvia (Woodrow Wilson Center for International Studies and Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994).


Latvian Dissent: Case Histories of the 1983 Soviet Campaign to Silence Political Dissidents in Occupied Latvia, ( World Federation of Free Latvians, Rockville, MD.1983).

(Documents the cases of 9 anti-Soviet activists with a chapter on each; 5 appendices with documents.)

Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians. A Short History (Stanford, CA., 1995).

Ruta U., Dear God, I Wanted to Live, trans. from Latvian by Rita Liepa, New York (Gramatu Draugs, 1979).

(Memoirs of a young girl’s experience after she was deported to Soviet labor camps in Siberia in June 1941.)


Marie Sapiets, “ ‘Rebirth and Renewal in the Latvian Lutheran Church”, in: Religion in Communist Lands, vol. 16, no. 3 (1988), pp. 196-286.

(Development of the “Rebirth and Renewal” movement into a movement for religious rights, 1987, in the context of Gorbachev’s “Glasnost” policy.)


Karlis Stripes, Inta Skinkis compilers, Fifteen Months that Shook the World, (American Latvian Association in the United States, Rockville, MD.,1992.

Coverage of events in Latvia from January 1991 to March 1992, with focus on the crisis of January and February 1991 when Soviet military forces tried to crush the independence movement.)


Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia, About the Republic of Latvia, (Riga, 1992).

(Texts of laws and resolutions, mainly on ethnic and national minorities, compiled by the Commission on Human Rights and National Questions.)


Dainis Vairgos, "Latvian Deportations 1940 - Present," trans. and edited by Martins T. Hildebrants, (World Federation of Free Latvians, Rockville, MD.,1986 (?).

(Eng. trans. and analysis of information in the supplementary list in: These Names Accuse: Nominal List of Latvians

Deported to Soviet Union in 1940-1941, (2nd ed. with supplementary list, Stockholm, 1982, pp. 492-677).


Elmars Vebers et al., The Ethnic Situation in Latvia Today: (Facts and Commentary), (Statistics Committee of the Republic of Latvia, Riga, 1992).

(Statistical data as of 1991, also comparative data from pre World War II period.)


Eugene E. Williams, Gulag to Independence: personal accounts of Latvian deportees sent to Siberia under the Stalin regime, 1941-1953, (Decatur, Mich., 1992).


c. Communist and Post-Communist Lithuania


Michael Bourdeaux, Land of Crosses: the Struggle for Religious Freedom in Lithuania, 1939-1978, (Chumleigh, England, 1979).

(He also wrote: Gorbachev, Glasnost and the Gospel, (London, 1990), with a chapter on religion in the Baltic States.

Juozas Daumantas, Fighters for Freedom: Lithuanian Partisans versus the USSR (1944-1947), trans. from Lithuanian by E.J. Harrison, (New York, 1975).

(First-hand account of the anti-Soviet Lithuanian partisan movement in those years, also the fate of the fighters and their associates. There are 8 pages of illustrations.) 


Richard J. Krickus, "The Presidential Crisis in Lithuania: Its Roots and Russian Factor," EES News, March-April 2004, pp. 9,11.

(EES News is published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington D.C.

Krickus, Prof. Em. of Mary Washington College, Fredricksburg, MD, now at the Strategic Studies Institute, discusses the charges against Lithuanian President Rolandas Paksas, elected in 2003, but forced to resign when accused of ties to Russian mafia and a rich Russian businessman in Lithuania.)



Lithuanian Reform Movement ‘Sajudis’ Constitutent Congress, (Vilnius, 1988).

(33 resolutions voted by the Congress.)


Joseph Pajaujis-Javis, Soviet Genocide in Lithuania, (New York, 1980).

(On the arrests and deportations during World War II, 1940-41, and 1944-54.)


Thomas Remeikis, Opposition to Soviet Rule in Lithuania. 1945-1980, (Institute of Lithuanian Studies Press, Chicago,1980).

(Emphasis on religious and national dissent, especially in the 1970s.)


Nijole Sadunaite, A Radiance in the Gulag: the Catholic Witness of Nijole Sadunaite, trans. by Casimir Pugivius, Marian Skabeikis, (Trinity Communications, Manassas, CA 1987).

(Nijole Sadunaite was arrested in August 1974 and sentenced to 3 years in the Gulag for helping to circulate the underground Chronicle of the Catholic Church. Her story was smuggled out of Lithuania to the West.)


Alfred Erich Senn, Lithuania Awakening, (Berkeley, CA., 1990).

(A detailed account of the Lithuanian independence movement in 1988-89. The book has notes to chapters, a biographical note on members of the Sajudis Initiative group elected June 3, 1988,and a chronology of major events in 1988-89. A.E. Senn is an American historian of Lithuania, author of the book: The Emergence of Modern Lithuania ,1959, and several other works on Lithuania. He is professor emeritus of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. 


Same, Gorbachev’s Failure in Lithuania, (New York, 1995).

(On the Soviet President’s failure to crush Lithuanian independence.)


Saulius Suziedelis, The Sword and the Cross: A History of the Church in Lithuania, , (Huntington, IN, 1988.

(Chapters on Lithuanian history and the role of the Church; also faith and human rights since 1972 and overview of Lithuanians in the West since mid- 1800s. S. Suziedalis, b. 1945, obtained his Ph.D. in History at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. He is also the author of The Historical Dictionary of Lithuania,vol. 21, 1997, has published many articles and edits the Journal of Baltic History.)


V. Stanley Vardys, The Catholic Church, Dissent, and Nationality in Soviet Lithuania, East European Monographs no. 43,Boulder, CO., and New York, 1978.

(Survey of the Catholic Church in Lithuania in Tsarist times, then of the church and dissent in Soviet times; appendix has documents on Lith. Catholic dissent. Vardys (b. 1924), is an American historian of Lithuania.

Same and Judith B. Sedaitis, Lithuania. The Rebel Nation, (Boulder, CO., 1997).


Same, ed., Lithuania under the Soviets: Portrait of a Nation, 1940-1965, (London, 1965).

(has chapters on history through the end of World War II, then on the postwar partisan movement,administration, politics, education, culture, Soviet social engineering.)




III - Special Topics in East European History.


A. Gender and Ethnicity in Eastern Europe.


“The Nexus of Gender and Ethnicity,” co-edited by Barbara Norton, Nationalities Papers, vol. 25, no. 1. 1997. (Special Topic Issue).

(Articles on Czech, Slovak, Jewish, Hungarian, Bulgarian Muslim Women, mainly in the 19th century; also Russian women in revolutionary Russia, and women in Soviet and post-Soviet Azerbaijan.)


(See also in sections on countries).


B. Minorities and Regional Identitites in Central and Eastern Europe in the Transition from Communism to Post-Communism.


Karl Cordell, ed., The Politics of Ethnicity in Central Europe, (New York, 2000).

(The articles focus primarily on the regional identity of the inhabitants of Upper Silesia and their attitudes toward various ruling nationalities before and after World War I, under communist rule, and today. See review by Charles King, Georgetown University, Slavic Review, vol. 60, no. 1, 2001, pp. 156-157). 


Central and East European Linguistic Minorities under the Transition from Communism to Post-Communism, guest editor, Tom Priestly, Nationalities Papers, vol 27, no. 1, 1999 (Special Topic Issue).

(Articles on the linguistic minorities in Greece and Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, North Adriatic area, Austria, Poland. Appendix A contains: European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; Chart of Signatures and Ratifications; App. B: Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities; Chart of Signatures and Ratifications. Tom Priestly was then teaching at the University of Alberta, Canada.)


Michael Mandelbaum, ed., The New European Diasporas. National Minorities and Conflict in Eastern Europe, (Council of Foreign Relations Press, New York, 2000).

(Sh. 1, deals with Hungarian minorities in Central Europe; ch. 2. with Russia, its Neighbors and the Russian Diaspora; ch. 3. deals with the Serbian Model, and ch. 4. with the Albanian National Question. The chapters, written by experts, have end notes.

In the year of publication, Michael Mandelbaum was Director of the Project on East-West Relations at the Council for Foreign Relations and the Christian A. Herter Professor of American Foreign Policy at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, Washington, D.C; he is now also director of the American Foreign Policy Program at JHS. .He is the editor and co-editor of 9 books published by the Council for Foreign Relations. In 1995, he strongly opposed expanding NATO to include Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary while stressing the importance of good U.S.-Russian relations.. He accompanied President Obama on his trip to Russia in July 2009.)


James Pettifer, Hugh Poulton, MRG -Greece, eds., The Southern Balkans, Minority Rights Group International Report, London, 1994.

(Studies by experts.)


C. East European countries’ road toward membership in the European Union.


Mike Mannin, ed., Pushing Back the Boundaries: The European Union and Central and Eastern Europe, (Manchester, England and New York, 1999).

(Very useful survey of the progress of E.European states toward EU membership and EU policies. J. Mannin and colleagues then taught at John Moores University, Liverpool..see review by Stanley W. Black, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Slavic Review, vol. 60, bi, 1, 2001, pp.155-156. Mannin is now Principal Lecturer in European Studies and holds the Jean Monnet Chair in European Integration at the same university.)