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I. EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, 1914-1945 (Cienciala, revised Feb.-March 2004).

  • Section 1.Reference Works
  • Section 2. SURVEYS
  • Section 3. World War I. The Great Powers
  • Section 4. East Central European Peoples in World War I and the Peace Treaties


  • II. EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, 1914-1939

    Section 1. Reference Works

    (See beginning of Part I of this Bibliography, to 1914).

    New: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EASTERN EUROPE. From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, edited by Richard Frucht, Garland Publishing, Inc., New York and London, 2000.

    (Richard Frucht, of Northwest Missouri State University, a specialist in Modern Balkan History, is to be congratulated on coordinating and editing the work of many contributors. The longer history entries on countries are of high quality. However, it is regrettable that in such an important reference work with specialists in Czech Hungarian and Romanian history on the Advisory Board, there was no specialist on Polish history. It is not surprising, therefore, that some of the shorter entries on Poland are unsatisfactory. Two examples will suffice: Katyn, gives the number of Polish prisoners murdered there in spring 1940 as 15, 000, although this is the old total number of Poles from the 3 special camps, who were shot in different locations, and there is no mention of the Russian documents published in English and Polish in 1992-2001. 2. the entry for Teschen speaks of Polish seizure of part of the area, but omits the local Polish and Czech National Councils' agreement of 5 November 1918 on an ethnic demarcation line leaving the then preponderantly Polish-speaking part of Western Teschen or "Zaolzie" on the Polish side. For short items relating to Poland up to 1945, it is advisable to consult: George J. Lerski, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, Greenwood Press, Westport CT, and London, 1996; for the period 1945-1996, see: Piotr Wrobel, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 1945-1996, Westport CT, 1996.

    Section 2. SURVEYS

    (A). General Surveys of the Region, 1914-39

    R. J. Crampton, Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, London, New York, Routledge 1996.

    (For information on author, see Pt. I Historical Atlases). This is a very good, brief history beginning with pre-World War I period and ending with the revolutions of 1989-91, with a very good, up-to-date bibliography. There are some errors. e. g. the secret Polish Military Organization, POW, is confused with Jozef Pilsudski's Polish Legion; the underground military organization, POW, was not dissolved, but founded in Aug. 1914 p. 10.

    Joseph Held, ed., The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, New York, Columbia University Press, 1992

    (Joseph Held (b. 1930) is of Hungarian origin. The book has chapters by country, mostly by historians, but also political scientists; there is a schematic, bare bones sketch of Polish history. The selective bibliography is undifferentiated by period or topic, but includes maps of the region: 1914, 1923, 1945 and a useful chronology for May 1918-December 1990.)

    (B). Economic History of the Region

    Ivan T. Berend and Gyorgy Ranki, Economic Development in East Central Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, New York, Columbia University Press, 1974

    (Written by two Hungarian economic historians; Ranki d. 1988. This is a good survey, but with almost exclusive emphasis on the Danubian basin.)

    M. C. Kaser and E. A. Radice, eds., The Economic History of Eastern Europe 1919-1975, 3 vols., Oxford, Oxford University press, 1985, 1986.

    (An excellent, detailed history by specialists; vols. 1, 2, cover the interwar and vol. 3, the post-World War II. period. At the time of publication, M. C. Kaser was a Professorial Fellow at St. Anthony's College, Oxford; E. A. Radice, C. B. E., became a Fellow at the same college afer a distinguished career in government service.)

    Wojciech Roszkowski, Land Reforms in East Central Europe after World War One, Warsaw, 1995.

    (The author is a prolific Polish historian, then at ISPPAN -- The Institute of Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences -- Warsaw, and in 2,000- 2003, holder of the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. (The chair is no longer there, 2009.) The book covers land reform in the Baltic states, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and in the Balkan countries with special attention to Romania, also the economic, social and political effects of the reform. For other E.Central Eur. countries, see under period and country; for Balkan countries, see under Balkans.)

    (C) Photographic Albums

    1. The Jews of Interwar Eastern Europe

    Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, IMAGE BEFORE MY EYES. A Photographic History of Jewish Life in Poland Before the Holocaust, New York, Shocken Books, 1977.

    (Fascinating photographic record of Jewish life on Polish territories from the mid- 19th century to 1939, with commentary by L. Dobroszycki (1926-1996), an outstanding scholar of Polish-Jewish origin..Educated in Poland, where he published works before immigrating to the U.S. He worked for many years at the Yivo Institute, New York.)

    Roman Vishniac, with foreword by Elie Wiesel, A VANISHED WORLD, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1983.

    (Moving photographs of Jewish life taken in late 1930s in Poland, Slovakia, Subcarpathian Ruthenia. R. Vishniac was born in the Jewish Pale, Russia, then lived in Germany and U. S. Elie Wiesel, b. in Romania, 1928 is a Holocaust survivor, author of memoirs, novels and studies on the Holocaust.)

    2. East European Jews after World War II.

    Remnants. The Last Jews of Poland, Written by Malgorzata Niezabitowska, Photographed by Tomasz Tomaszewski. Translated from the Polish by William Brand and Hanna Dobosiewicz, New York, 1986.

    (Moving portraits of mostly elderly Polish Jews in the mid-1980s; excellent interviews and photographs by two Polish women journalists.)

    Section 3. World War I. The Great Powers

    (A). Austria-Hungary in the War and its Collapse, October-November 1918

    The Austrian History Yearbook, 1967, pt. 3 : "The Disintegration of the Monarchy," (articles by Hajo Holborn, Victor S. Mamatey, Hans Kohn).

    (This is an excellent collection of articles, originally papers read at a conference held at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Hajo Holborn (1902-1969) was an American historian of German origin, who left Germany when Hitler came to power. He taught at Yale University. V. S. Mamatey (b. North Braddock, PA, 1917) is an American historian of Russia and Eastern Europe. Hans Kohn (1891-1971) was an American historian of Jewish origin born in Prague, who wrote on Nationalism and always regretted the passing of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.)

    Austrian History Yearbook, v. IV-V, 1968-69 (articles by Fritz Fellner, Robert F. Hopwood, Alfred D. Low, Stefan Pascu, and Comments, pp. 3-100).

    (Fritz Fellner is an Austrian historian; Alfred D. Low, b. Vienna, 1913,was an American historian of E. Europe: Stefan Pascu, b. Cluj, Transylvania, 1913, was of Romanian origin.)

    F. R. Bridge, THE HABSBURG MONARCHY AMONG THE GREAT POWERS, 1815-1918, Oxford, Munich, Berg, and New York, St. Martin's Press, 1990 (ch. 8, 9).

    (F. R. Bridge, is a British specialist on the History of the Habsburg Empire and on British foreign policy. At the time of publication, he was Reader in International History, University  of Leeds. The focus is on international relations; the book has 16 portraits of Habsburg monarchs and statesmen, maps, and a good bibliography.)

    Arthur J. May, The Passing of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1914-1918, 2 vols., Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press, 1966.

    (Detailed study, by an American historian written with sympathy for the empire.) For more recent evaluations, see Bridge, above, and:

    Alan Sked, THE DECLINE OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE. 1815-1918, New York, Dorset Press, 1989 (ch. 6).

    (Alan Sked, was at the time of publication, Senior Lecturer in International History, London School of Economics and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. His book focuses on domestic history. There is a useful chronology and maps, but no bibliography.)

    Clifford F. Wargelin, "The Economic Collapse of Austro-Hungarian Dualism," East European Quarterly, vol. XXXIV no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 261-288.

    (The author contends that it was not only the strain of war on the economy of Austria-Hungary which led to its collapse, but also, and even more, the fact that the dual system itself was outdated, reactionary and unable to secure the economic development of the Empire.)

    For studies by participants in the collapse, see:

    Oscar Jaszi, The Disssolution of the Habsburg Monarchy, Chicago, 1929, reprint Phoenix edition, Chicago, 1961.

    (Analysis by a sociologist and liberal Hungarian politician, who dreamed of a liberal Hungary leading a Danubian federation. After the First World War, he taught at the University of Chicago.)

    Count Michael Karolyi, Fighting the World: The Struggle for Peace, London, 1924, 2nd ed., London, 1956, New York, 1957.

    (M. Karolyi (1875-1955), was a Hungarian politician, head of H. govt. Nov. 1918 and briefly President of Hungary (early 1919). He had supported a separate peace between A-H and the Entente Powers in WWI; later he tried but failed to keep old Hungary together with extensive cultural rights for minorities, worked out by Jaszi.)



    B. German policy in World War I

    Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, With Introduction by Hajo Holborn and James Joll, New York, Norton, 1967.

    (Fritz Fischer, 1908-1999, was a prominent German historian. His thesis that Germany was most responsible for the outbreak of war in 1914, and that her war aims were imperialistic, aroused great controversy, esp. among German historians.)

    For his replies to factual and methodological criticism, see:

    Fritz Fischer, WORLD POWER OR DECLINE. The Controversy over Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, Norton, 1974.

    Same: WAR OF ILLUSIONS. German Policies from 1911 to 1914, transl Marion Jackson, New York, Norton, 1975.

    C. British attitudes toward Austria-Hungary and E. Europe in World War I

    Kenneth J. Calder, Britain and the Origins of the New Europe, 1914-1918, Cambridge, University Press, 1976.

    (A very useful study by an English historian, based on British archival sources.)

    Wilfried Fest, PEACE OR PARTITION. The Habsburg Monarchy and British Policy, 1914-1918, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1978.

    (A thorough treatment of the subject based on archival sources by a German scholar.)

    Harry Hanak, Great Britain and Austria Hungary During the First World War. A Study in the Formation of Public Opinion, London, Oxford University Press, 1962.

    (An excellent study of the subject based on a thorough analysis of the British press, various national and British publications, also private British collections. H. Hanak, d. 2007, wass a British historian of Hungarian origin.)

    Harold I. Nelson, LAND AND POWER. British and Allied Policy on Germany's Frontiers, 1916-1919, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1963.

    (A pioneering study in diplomatic history, based on American and Canadian archival collections, by a Canadian author who taught at the University of Toronto.)

    Hugh and Christopher Seton-Watson, THE MAKING OF A NEW EUROPE. R. W. Seton- Watson and the last years of Austria-Hungary, Seattle, WA, University of Washington, Press, 1981.

    (R. W. Seton-Watson, 1879-1951, was the first, and to date, the most prominent British expert on Eastern Europe. His two sons, both historians (Hugh died in 1984,, Christopher in 2007), give an account of their father's studies and activities in the region between 1905 and 1919, citing his correspondence. He knew the leaders of, and was the spokesman for the Czechs, Serbs, Croats, and Romanians. The title of the book comes from the periodical he published and wrote for, with the goal of informing educated Britons about this part of Europe. See also his correspondence with Yugoslavs and Romanians in the section on the Balkans, below.)

    D. U. S. policy towards East Central and Souteastern Europe in World War I.

    M.B.B. Biskupski, "Strategy, Politics, and Suffering: The Wartime Relief of Belgium, Serbia and Poland, 19124-1918," in, same, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe, University of Rochester Press, 2003, pp. 31-57.

    (Biskupski holds the Stanislas A. Blejwas Chair of Polish and Polish American History at the Central State Connecticut University, New Britain, Ct . Blejwas, who taught for many years at the university, d. 2001, was an outstanding American historian of Poland and Poles in America.)

    V. S. Mamatey, The United States and East Central Europe, 1914-1918: A Study in Wilsonian Diplomacy and Propaganda, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1957.

    (A pioneering study on the subject by an American historian.)

    E. Russian policy in World War I

    Ronald Bobroff, "Devolution in Wartime: Sergei D. Sazonov and the Future of Poland," International History Review, vol. XXII, no. 3, 2000, pp. 505-528.

    (The author shows the politics of the Polish Question in Russian policy, also that Foreign Minister Sergei D. Sazonov's plans to gain Polish and Western support for Russia by granting autonomy to the Poles of Russian Poland were finally canceled by Tsar Nicholas II; some archival documents are cited. Bobroff was then a graduate student in 19-20th century Russian History and International Relations at Duke University, Durham, N.C. )

    Same, : Roads to Glory: the late imperial Russia and the Turkish Straits, Tauris, London; Palgrave, Macmillan, New York, 2006.

    Alexander Dallin et al, eds., Russian Diplomacy and Eastern Europe, 1914-1917, New York, King's Crown Press, 1963.

    (Good surveys, especially on Russian policy and aims regarding Poland and Austria- Hungary. Alexander Dallin, b. Berlin, 1924, d. California 2000, was an American historian of 20th c. international relations, esp. Russian; he was a Senior Fellow at the Institute of International Studies, Stanford, CA.)

    Wiktor Sukiennicki, East Central Europe During World War I: From Foreign Domination to National Independence, 2 vols., edited by Maciej Siekierski, East European Monographs, CXIX, Boulder, CO., distr. by Columbia University, New York,1984.

    (This detailed work deals mainly with the policy of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia toward the Poles, Belorussians, Ukrainians, and the Baltic peoples; it has useful translations from hard-to-find documents. W. Sukiennicki (1901-1983) studied, then taught law at the Stefan Batory University, Wilno/Vilnius/Vilna; was deported to the USSR where he was held in 1940-42, then worked for the Polish govt. in Great Britain, later for Radio Free Europe, and lastly at the Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA, 1959 ff. Maciej Siekierski,b. 1949, an American historian of Polish descent, is the curator of East European Collections in the Hoover Institution Archives and Library, Stanford, CA.)

    F. War and Society in Eastern Europe in World War I, (covering the Empires and nations of the region).

    Bela K. Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, eds., East Central European Society in World War I, Social Science Monographs/ East European Monographs, v. 19, Boulder, CO.,, New York, 1985.

    (This is part of a very valuable series. B. F. Kiraly (b. Budapest, 1912) was Commander of the Hungarian garrison Budapest, 1956, then emigrated to U. S. where he became a historian; he returned to Budapest after the collapse of communism in E.Europe. N. Dreisziger is a Canadian historian of Hungarian origin.)

    G. Jewish views/goals regarding future Eastern Europe, also British policy on:

    Eugene C. Black, "Squaring a Minorities Triangle: Lucien Wolf, Jewish Nationalists and Polish Nationalists," in: Paul Latawski, ed., The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23, Basingstoke and London, UK, 1992 (ch. 2, pp. 13-40; see also Mark Levene work, below.)

    (At the end of WWI, Lucien Wolf was the leader of the Jewish community in Britain. Eugene Charlton Black (b. Boston, Mass, 1927) is an American historian of modern Britain; the recently deceased Paul Latawski an American historian of Poland who lived and worked in the U.K.)

    Norman Davies, "Great Britain and the Polish Jews, 1914-1920," Journal of Contemporary History, 8 (1973), pp. 119-142.

    (Norman Davies b. 1940, is the pre-eminent British historian of Poland.) For a detailed study of the topic, see:

    Mark Levene, WAR, JEWS, AND THE NEW EUROPE. The Diplomacy of Lucien Wolf, 1914-1919, Oxford, 1992.

    Mark Levene (b. London, 1953) was then a Lecturer in Modern Jewish History at Warwick University, UK.

    Isaac Lewin, A History of Polish Jewry during the Renewal of Poland, contains: Isaac Lewin, "The Political History of Polish Jewry, 1918-1919"; Nahum Michael Gelber, "The National Autonomy of Eastern-Galician Jewry in the West-Ukrainian Republic, 1918-1919," New York, 1990.

    (Isaac Lewin was then Professor emeritus of Jewish History at the Bernard Revel Graduate School, Yeshiva University, New York. He has published works on the history of Jews in Poland. Nahum M. Gelber (died 1963), was a leading historian of 19th c. Polish Jewry.)

    Antony Polonsky, The Jews in Poland and Russia, v. II, 1884-1914, Oxford, Portland, OR., 2010.

    (Polonsky is the pre-eminent authority on the subject.)


    Section 4. East Central European Peoples in World War I and the Peace Treaties

    [NOTE: generally, Poland will be listed first as the largest country in Eastern Europe, also the one endowed with the most extensive English language historical literature].


    Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919. Six months that Changed the World, New York, 2002.

    (The author, the great-grand daughter of British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, upsets the old, negative stereotype view of the Peace Conference as dominated by short-sighted statesmen who produced a bad peace treaty, as well as another stereotype view: that there is a straight line between the Versailles Treaty, Adolf Hitler, and WWII. Macmillan gives good surveys of East European questions and problems. This book, which won the Samuel Johnson Prize and the PEN Hessell Tilman and Duff Cooper Prizes, is a "must read" for all teachers of 20th c. European history, including those who teach Western Civilization and/or World History at the High School and University level.

    (Macmillan was then Professor of History and Provost of Trinity College, the University of Toronto,Canada; later at Oxford University).

    Sally Marks, The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918-1933, Basingstoke,Hampshire, England and New York, 2005.

    (Marks is a retired historian; this is a well balanced account with much criticism of German foreign policy in this period and more attention than usual to the nations between Germany and the USSR.She published a work with the same title in 1976).

    . Zara Steiner, The Lights That Failed: European International History, 1919-1933, New York, NY, 2005.

    (Excellent study. Steiner convincingly argues against John Maynard Keynes's famous work, The Carthaginian Peace,condemning the Versailles Treaty, mainly on economic grounds, esp. reparations. She shows that reparations did not cripple Germany, for they were well within its means to pay, although only a small percentage was finally paid off. See also review by Paul W. Schroeder in The International History Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 1, March 2006, pp. 119-126.)

    (A).The Rebirth of Poland, 1914-21:

    (i) Much useful data on Polish territories before 1914 can be found in:

    Handbooks Prepared under the Direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office: no. 46, Austrian Poland; no. 52, Prussian Poland; and no. 44, Russian Poland, Lithuania and White Russia, London, 1919-20.

    (These handbooks were prepared by British historians for the British Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference.). Also useful is:

    The Polish Encyclopedia prepared and published by the Committee for Polish Encyclopedic Publications, Fribourg, Switzerland, and the Polish National Committee of America, 3 vols., 1920-2.;

    (While clearly pro-Polish, it has hard-to-find maps and statistics.)

    (ii). Poles and Poland in World War I and in the Peace Settlements 1919.

    Anna M. Cienciala and Titus Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno, Keys to Polish Foreign Policy, 1919-1925, Lawrence, KS, 1984.

    (Anna M. Cienciala, b. Danzig/Gdansk, 1929, is an American historian of European international relations, 1914-45, specializing in Polish foreign policy. She taught at the University of Ottawa, 1960-61, the University of Toronto, 1961-65, and the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS., 1965-2002. Titus Komarnicki (1896-1967) was a Polish diplomat and historian. This book, based on a mss. written by Komarnicki, was revised by Cienciala and expanded with the addition of British and French diplomatic archival documents inaccessible at the time of Komarnicki's research for the book. She added two new chapters on Poland and the Locarno Treaties, see Preface).

    Patricia A. Gajda, Postscript to Victory. British Policy in the German-Polish Borderlands, 1919-1925, Washington, DC, 1982.

    (Based on British archives, this study tends to favor the British point of view. See also Cienciala and Komarnicki abov,e and Komarnicki below. Gajda (b. 1941) is of Polish descent; she then taught at the University of Texas, Tyler, TX, specializing in Texas history.)

    Bela Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, East Central European Society in World War I, War and Society in East Central Europe, vol. XIX, New York, 1985, Part III, Home Front, Poland, and Part IV, Military Affairs, Poland.

    (Bela Kiraly, 1912-2009, commanded Hungarian forces in Budapest during the revolution of 1956; he emigrated to the U.S., became a historian; returned to Budapest after the collapse of communism in 1989.

    N. Dreisziger is a Canadian historian born in Hungary, Prof. Em. of History at the Royal Military College of Canada; author of many articles and chapters in books on 20th c. Hungarian history and editor of the Hungarian Studies Review since 1974.)

    Titus Komarnicki, Rebirth of the Polish Republic. A Study in the Diplomatic History of Europe, 1914-1920, London, 1957. (Part I, ch. 1-V).

    (On T. Komarnicki, see first title in this section. This is the most detailed diplomatic history of the subject, still very useful. The author had access to Polish archival documents in London, but British and French archival sources were then unavailable to historians, see Cienciala Komarnicki book above.)

    Paul Latawski, ed., The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23, Basingstoke and London, UK, 1992.

    (This collection of conference papers (London, Dec. 1988), covers a broad spectrum of topics: Roman Dmowski; the Jewish Question; Polish-Ukrainian relations; American policy toward Poland; Danzig and the Polish Corridor at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919" (Cienciala); Roman Dmowski at the Paris Peace Conference (Wandycz); the establishment of a National Government, 1918;The Economic Integration of Poland, 1918-23; Reconstruction of the Government and State Apparatus, and the Origins of the Polish Foreign Ministry. On the late Latawski, see above.)

    Piotr Wandycz, Polish Diplomacy 1914-1945. Aims and Achievements (London, 1988), pp. 5-17 (click to text).


    Polish Women in the Fight for Independence, 1880-1921.

    Robert M. Ponichtera, "Feminists, Nationalists, and Soldiers: Women in the Fight for Polish Independence," International History Review, vol. XIX (19), no. 1, Feb. 1997, pp. 16- 31.

    (R. M. Ponichtera, Yale University Ph. D., studied under Professor Piotr S. Wandycz. The first part of the article deals with the late 19th and early 20th centuries; pp. 22 ff. recounts Polish women's participation in the fight for independence, 1914-18, then the Polish-Ukrainian and Polish-Soviet Wars of 1918-21.)


    Kay Lundgreen-Nielsen, The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference. A Study of the Polices of the Great Powers and the Poles, 1918-1919, Odense, Denmark, 1979.

    (The author, a Danish historian of Poland, gives a detailed account of the establishment of Poland's western frontier with Germany, also a detailed account with a very critical assessment of Pilsudski's eastern policy. (Compare with the chapters on Wilno and East Galicia in Cienciala-Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno). See also:

    H. W. V. Temperley, ed., A HISTORY OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF PARIS, 6 vols., Oxford, London, 1920, reprint Oxford, 1969.

    (Written by British and American experts immediately after the Paris Peace Conference and the signing of the Versailles Treaty, this series has some very useful information on Poland at the Peace Conference in vol. VI, ch. II, pt. II, pp. 233-283.; Germany's loss of territory to Poland -- v. II, ch. IV, pt. II, pp. 207-215; The Teschen Question --vol. IV, ch. VI, pt. I, pp. 348-367; the Polish Minorities Treaty, 28 June, 1919 -- vol. V, ch. II, C, pp. 132-143; the Letter from G. Clemenceau to I. Paderewski, 24 June 1919, and text of Minorities Treaty -- App. IV, pp. 432-445.).

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "The Polish Question," in Manfred Boemeke et al., eds., The Treaty of Versailles: a Reassessment after 75 Years, Cambridge, U.K., New York, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

    (Wandycz , b. in Poland 1923, educated in Poland, France, Belgium and the U.K, formerly professor at Indiana University, later chair of East European History and nowprofessor emeritus Yale University, is the pre-eminent American historian of modern Poland, author of an excellent text on modern East Central Europe and specialist in interwar European diplomatic history.)

    French Policy on Poland in WWI and at the Peace Conference

    Piotr S. Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies 1919-1925. French-Czechoslovak- Polish Relations from the Paris Peace Conference to Locarno, Minneapolis, MN, 1962.

    (Written before the opening of the French archives for the interwar period, this is still the best work on the subject.)

    U. S. Policy on Poland, WW I and Peace Conference.

    M. B. Biskupski, "The Wilsonian View of Poland: Idealism and Geopolitical Traditionalism," in: John Micgiel, ed., Wilsonian Central Europe, NY, 1995, pp. 123-145.

    (Biskupski. who is of Polish descent, is a specialist on U.S. policy toward Poland, 1914-19; he holds the chair of Polish and Polish American History at the Central State University of Connecticut, New Britain, CT. John Micgiel, who is also of Polish descent, is an adjunct professor of international and public affairs, associate director of the Harriman Institute, director of the East Central European Center and Exec. Director. of the European Institute, Columbia University, New York.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, MA, 1980, ch. 3, Wilson and the Rebirth of Poland, pp. 194-169.

    (An excellent survey with suggested readings. Wandycz then held the Durfee Chair of East European History at Yale University).

    (iii) Special studies on disputed areas of Poland in 1919-21.

    (A). Poland and Germany: Danzig at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, also in 1920-21.

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Battle of Danzig and the Polish Corridor at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919," ch. 5, in: Paul Latawski, ed., THE RECONSTRUCTION OF POLAND, 1914-23, (Basingstoke, London, UK, 1992, pp. 71-94.

    same, with T. Komarnicki, FROM VERSAILLES TO LOCARNO, (Lawrence, KS, 1984), ch. 4, pp. 91-104.

    same, "An Aspect of the German-Polish Problem in the Interwar Period: The Secret Anglo-French Agreement on Danzig and the Saar and its Consequences, 1919- 1926," Zeitschrift fur Ostforschung, Heft 3, Marburg, 1978, pp. 434- 455.(DIGITIZED).

    (Cienciala is an American historian of East Central Europe, particularly diplomatic history 1914-45 with specialization in Poland.She is prof. em. of history, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.)

    Sir James Headlam-Morley, A Memoir of the Paris Peace Conference 1919, edited by Agnes Headlam-Morley, Russell Bryant and Anna M. Cienciala, London, 1972.

    (Headlam-Morley, 1863-1929, was the main author of the Versailles Treaty articles on the Free City of Danzig. He cooperated on working out these article with Sidney Mezes of the U.S. delegation to the Paris Peace Conference.. Agnes, his daughter, was a British historian; R. Bryant is an American historian.)

    see also:

    John Brown Mason, THE DANZIG DILEMMA. A Study in Peacemaking by Compromise, Stanford, CA, 1946.

    (The author,(b. Berlin, 1904), was, a political scientist and historian. He gives a good introductory survey to the settlement, based on sources published up to 1945; the book is useful for published documents and on how the Danzig settlement worked out in practice, but is in many respects outdated. )

    Upper Silesia at the Paris Peace Conference:

    Richard Blanke, "Upper Silesia, 1921; The Case for Subjective Nationality, " Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, 2, 2, spring 1975 (pp. 241-260)

    (Blanke is an American historian of German descent; sympathetic to German views. See his book on the German minority in Poland, The Orphans of Versailles, in section of this bibl. dealing with Minorities in interwar Poland.).

    Cienciala and Komarnicki, FROM VERSAILLES TO LOCARNO. Keys to Polish Foreign Policy 1919-1925 (University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 1984), ch. 3, pp. 59-90.

    Joseph F. Harrington, Jr., "The League of Nations and the Upper Silesian Boundary Dispute, 1921-1922," Polish Review, vol. 23, no. 3, 1978 (pp. 86- 101);

    (By an American historian sympathetic to Poland.)

    same, "Third Polish Uprising in Upper Silesia, 1921: A Case Study in Anglo-French Relations," New Review of East European History, 14, 1974 pp. 78-91.

    same: "Upper Silesia and the Paris Peace Conference," Polish Review, vol. 19, no. 2, 1974, pp. 25-45;

    Peter Lesniewski, "Three Insurrections in Upper Silesia, 1919-21," in: Peter D. Stachura, ed., Poland between the Wars, 1918-1939, Basingstoke U.K. and New York, 1998.

    (Good account of British policy based on archives, but without showing the interaction with France. Lesniewski is a British scholar of Polish descent. Peter D. Stachura is Professor of Modern European History and Director of the Centre of Research in Polish History at the University of Stirling, U.; he has many publications, mainly on 20th century Poland..)

    Robert Machray, The Problem of Upper Silesia, London, 1945.

    (Robert Machray, 1857-1946, was a British historian specialising in Poland. Written in support of Polish claims, this little book has some hard-to-find ethnic maps and statistics.)

    William J. Rose, The Drama of Upper Silesia: A Regional Study, Brattelboro, Vt., 1935 and London, 1936.

    (Gives the region's history before and after 1921, sympathetic to Poland. William J. Rose, 1885-1968, a Canadian Christian Student Movement organizer caught by the war in Teschen Silesia, was involved in drawing up the local Polish-Czechoslovak agreement on the division of western Teschen Silesia [Zaolzie] into provisional Polish and Czech administrative regions on November 5, 1918, and then represented the Polish case at the Paris Peace Conference.. He obtained a Ph.D. in Polish history at the Jagiellonian University, Krakow, and became a historian of Poland. In the 1930s and 1940s, he was the Director of the School of Slavonic Studies, University of London. See The Polish Memoirs of William J. Rose, edited by Daniel Stone, Toronto, 1976, review by Cienciala, Canadian Slavonic Papers, vol. XVIII, no. 2, 1976, pp. 339-40.)

    Sarah Wambaugh, Plebiscites since World War I, 2 vols, Washington, 1933.

    (Wambaugh, 1882-1955, was an American political scientist who became a world authority on plebiscites. This has a very useful account of the Upper Silesian Plebiscite based on sources available at the time, with maps, and statistical tables.)


    (B) Poland and Czechoslovakia, 1919-20:

    For a balanced treatment of the Teschen (Tesin, Cieszyn) Dispute between Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1918-20, see:

    Piotr S. Wandycz, France and her Western Allies, 1914-1925., Minneapolis, MN, 1962, ch. 3, pp. 104-134; also:

    Zygmunt J. Gasiorowski, "Polish-Czechoslovak Relations, 1918-1922," The Slavonic and East European Review, v. 38, no. 84, London, 1956, pp. 172-193.

    (Z. J Gasiorowski, b. Poland, 1919, taught at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA.)

    B. Kozusznik, The Problem of Cieszyn Silesia. Facts and Documents, London, 1943.

    (Dr. Boguslaw Kozusznik, a physician, 1901-1998, was a Polish native of Teschen (Tesin, Cieszyn) Silesia. and in 1943 a member of the Polish National Council, an advisory body to the Polish government-in-exile. He presents arguments in support of Poland's claim to western Teschen (Zaolzie). This is a good presentation of the Polish claim to the western Teschen area with useful maps and statistics:)

    W. J. Rose, "Czechs and Poles as Neighbors," Journal of Central European Affairs vol. 11, 1951, no. 2, pp. 153-171.

    Daniel Stone, ed., THE POLISH MEMOIRS OF WILLIAM JOHN ROSE, Toronto, 1975 (ch.3).

    (Daniel Z. Stone, b. 1942, is a historian of modern Poland, who then taught at the University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. On Rose, see biogr. note in section A above. )

    (C) Poles and Lithuanians: the dispute over Vilna/Wilno/Vilnius 1919-23.

    Cienciala and Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno, ch. 5. See also:

    M. K. Dziewanowski, JOSEPH PILSUDSKI A European Federalist, 1918-1922, Stanford, CA, 1969, ch. V-VIII, pp. 79-178.

    (Marian Kamil Dziewanowski, b. Ukraine, 1913, d. 2006, served in the Polish army in World War II, obtained a Ph. D. in history at Harvard, taught at the Univ. of Boston and was Professor Emeritus University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. He is the author of several books, including a history of World War II. This book is sympathetic to Pilsudski.)

    Alfred Erich Senn, THE GREAT POWERS, LITHUANIA, AND THE VILNA QUESTION, 1920-1928, Leiden, 1966

    (A. E. Senn, b. Madison, WI, 1932, is an American historian, author of several books sympathetic to Lithuania.)

    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations; Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, New Haven, (2003), ch. 4. The First World War and the Wilno Question (1914-1939), pp. 52-72,

    (The book deals mostly with the 20th century. It gives a balanced account of the Lithuanian-Polish dispute and Polish rule 1920-39. Snyder, an Amercan historian of East Central Europe, is the author of several books and teaches at Yale University.)


    (D) The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920

    (i) Diplomatic history of the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20

    Jerzy Borzecki, The Soviet-Polish Peace of 1921 and the Creation of Interwar Europe, New Haven, CT., 2008.

    (This is a revised version of a Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Toronto. 2002. Borzecki, a historian of Polish origin, b. 1956, has written the most detailed study thus far of the Polish-Russian negotiations resulting in the Treaty of Riga, March 1921, based on Polish and Russian archival sources; see Cienciala review in Slavic Review, 2009.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, Soviet-Polish Relations, 1917-1921, Cambridge, Mass., 1969.

    (By the pre-eminent historian of Poland in the U. S.. B. Poland, 1923, Wandycz, prof. emeritus Yale Universityi, is the author of several books and many articles. This is the best English language study on the subject to date, although Wandycz did not have access to the archival Russian documents later available to Borzecki..)

    (ii) Military history of the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20, see:

    Norman Davies, White Eagle Red Star. The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920, London, New York, 1972, and reprints:

    (By the pre-eminent British historian of Poland, b. 1940. Davies then taught at the London School of Slavonic Studies, University of London. This revised Ph. D dissertation, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, is written in a lively style, has illustrations and excellent documentation, but is now partly outdated.).

    Thomas C. Fiddick, Russia's Retreat from Poland, 1920. From Permanent Revolution to Peaceful Coexistence, New York, 1990.

    (Fiddick, an American historian of Russia, then teaching at the University of Evansville, IN., portrays the Soviet leadership as not intending to defeat the Poles and Tukhachevsky as going against their wishes in forging ahead to Warsaw in July-August 1920; see Piotr S. Wandycz critique, The Russian Review, v. 51, no. 1, Jan. 1992, pp. 130- 131.)

    Adam Zamoyski, The Battle for the Marchlands, East Eur. Monographs. LXXXVIII, New York, 1981.

    same, The Battle of Warsaw, 1920, London, 2008.

    (A. Zamoyski, b of Polish parents,. New York, 1949, educated in UK, is the author of several books, most on Polish history, and lives in London. This is a v. good, military account of the key battle in the Polish-Soviet War; won by the Poles; compare with N. Davies.)


    Did French General Maxime Weygand and the Western Powers "save" Poland and Europe from the Bolsheviks in summer 1920?

    F. Russell Bryant, "Lord D'Abernon, the Anglo-French Mission, and the Battle of Warsaw, 1920," Jarhbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas, v. 38, 1990, h. 4, pp. 526-547.

    (The author, an American historian, claims that Pilsudski's counter-offensive could not have succeeded without general Weygand's input, and that the mission of which the latter was a member, resulted from British Premier Lloyd George's foresight.)

    For a very different view, see:

    Norman Davies, "Sir Maurice Hankey and the Inter-Allied Mission to Poland, July- August 1920," The Historical Journal, London, 1972, v. XV, no. 3, pp. 553- 561

    (The author, the pre-eminent British historian of Poland, shows that the myth of the Western Powers saving Poland from the Bolsheviks in 1920 originated with Sir Maurice Hankey.)

    Zdzislaw Musialik, General Weygand and the Battle of the Vistula - 1920, (trans. from Polish) edited by Antoni Jozef Bohdanowicz, Jozef Pilsudski Institute of Research, London, 1987.

    (The work is based on Polish and French military archives, also on U. S. documentary sources, but is marred by typographical errors and omissions in the footnotes. Musialik, a historia and Catholic priest, was then living in Poland.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "General Weygand and the Battle of Warsaw of 1920," Journal of Central European Affairs, vol. XIX, no. 4, Jan. 1960, pp. [357- 365.

    (This seminal study demonstrates that Weygand cannot be credited with the Polish victory over the Red Army.)

    M. B. B. Biskupski, "Paderewski, Polish Politics, and the Battle of Warsaw, 1920," Slavic Review, 1987, vol. 46, no. 3-4, pp. 503- 512.

    (Biskupski, a Polish-American historian, is a specialist on interwar Poland and U. S. policy toward Poland. He taught for many years at St. John Fischer College, Rochester, N. Y. and has held the St. Blejwas Chair of Polish and Polish American History at the Central State University of Connecticut, New Britain, Ct. since fall 2003. He is the author of 10 books, including : Hollywood's War with Poland, 1939-1945, University of Kentucky Press, 2009.).

    For the accounts of the two key military leaders in the Polish-Soviet War, see:

    Jozef Pilsudski, Year 1920 and its Climax: Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920, with the Addition of Soviet Marshal Tukhachevski's March beyond the Vistula, Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America, New York, 1972.

    (Tukhachevsky's account should be read first; Pilsudski's essay was his reply.)

    For Pilsudski's federal projects regarding Belorussia, Ukraine, Lithuania see:

    K. M. Dziewanowski, Joseph Pilsudski. A European Federalist, 1918-1922, Stanford (Hoover) CA, 1969.

    (The author stresses Pilsudski's long range plans before and during the war.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "Polish Federalism 1919-1920 and its Historical Antecedents," East European Quarterly, Boulder, CO., 1970, vol. IV, no. 1, pp. 25-39.

    U. S. Policy toward Russia and the Polish-Soviet War

    Piotr W. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, ch. 3, section: The Polish-Soviet War, pp. 143-156.

    Boguslaw W. Winid, "After the Colby Note: The Wilson Administration and the Polish-Bolshevik War," The Presidential Studies Quarterly, v. 26, no. 4, Fall 1996, pp. 1165-1169.

    (The author, a Polish diplomat and historian, comments on David McFadden's article "After the Colby Note: The Wilson Administration and the Bolsheviks, 1920-1921," published in the same journal in fall 1995. This refers to American Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby's note to Italian Ambassador Romano Avezzana that the U. S. could not recognize the Bolshevik regime or sign treaties with it, also that all means should be used to preserve Poland's independence and territorial integrity.)

    On American pilots' participation in the Polish-Soviet War, see:

    Janusz Cisek, Kosciuszko, we are here!: American pilots of the Kosciuszko Squadron in Defense of Poland, 1919-1921, Jefferson, N.C., 2002.

    Andrzej Krzysztof Kunert, "American Pilots in Polish Uniform," in: Silver Eagle Golden Eagle. Polish-American Military Traditions since 1776, Warsaw, 1999, pp. 92- 95.

    (This is an illustrated, popular history of the subject with some useful information.)

    Kenneth M. Murray, WINGS OVER POLAND: The Story of the 7th Kosciuszko Squadron of the Polish Air Service, 1919, 1920, 1921, New York, 1932.

    (On the American pilots, formerly of the Lafayette Squadron, France, who fought for Poland.)

    (E) Poles and Ukrainians - the struggle for East Galicia, 1918-22:

    Cienciala and Komarnicki, FROM VERSAILLES TO LOCARNO, ch. 6-8

    M. K. Dziewanowski, JOSEPH PILSUDSKI. A European Federalist, ch. XII-XV, pp. 217-288.

    (Favorable view of Pilsudski and his eastern policies.)

    Michael Palij, The Ukranian-Polish Defensive Alliance, 1919-1921. An Aspect of the Ukrainian Revolution, Edmonton, Toronto, 1995.

    (The author (d. Lawrence, KS., 2010), was a Ukrainian born and raised in Poland; studied in Germany and U.S., and was for many years a Slavic bibliographer in Watson Library at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS., Here, he focuses on the Ukrainian side of the story. He views Jozef Pilsudski's Ukrainian policy as purely instrumental and charges him with betraying the cause of a free Ukraine. The book includes the treaty texts and an extensive bibliography; see review by Anna M. Cienciala, American Historical Review, vol. 102, no. 2, April 1997, pp. 484-485.)

    Alexander Victor Prusin, Nationalizing the Borderland. War, Ethnicity, and Anti-Jewish Violence in East Galicia, 1914-1920, Tuscaloosa, Ala., 2005.

    (Based on exptensive documentation, this study focuses on actions against the Jewish population of the region and generally favors the Ukrainians..)

    Michael Yaremko, GALICIA-HALYCHYNA (A Part of Ukraine). From Separation to Unity), Toronto, New York, 1967.

    (A Ukrainian nationalist view of the Polish-Ukrainian struggle for East Galicia)

    Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Essays in Modern Ukrainian History, Edmonton, 1987, pp. 375-417.

    (A moderate Ukrainian view. See also Polish-Ukrainian relations in section 3 A, Poland..


    (iv) U. S. policy on and aid to Poland, 1919-22.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, ch. 3, Wilson and the Rebirth of Poland, also annotated bibliography for ch. 3, in Suggested Reading. See also:

    A. B. Barber, Report on the American Technical Advisers' Mission to Poland, 1919-1922, New York, 1922.

    (V. iinteresting account by a member of the Mission. He deals mainly with railways, but also with the early days of the Free City of Danzig, where he spent some of his time. He says the Americans and British called the Polish Commissioner there at the time, Jalowiecki, "Yellow Whisky" because that was the nearest they came to pronouncing his name!)

    Alfred A. Cornebise, Typhus and Doughboys: The American Polish Typhus Relief Expedition, 1919-1921, Newark, 1982

    (This expedition saved thousands of lives. A. F. Cornebise, b. 1929, Brownfield, TX.,, has published books on the Weimar Republic and U. S. military journalism. He taught at the University of Northwestern Colorado, where he was chairman of the History Dept., 1984-86.)

    Harold H. Fischer, America and the New Poland, New York, 1928.

    (By an American YMCA official sympathetic to Poland.)

    William R. Grove, War's Aftermath. Polish Relief in 1919, New York, 1940

    (Diary and reports of the author and his associates, members of theAmerican Relief Administration - ARA -- pictures, portraits, maps. W. R. Grove was awarded the Medal of Honor. See also Lerski, below.)

    George J. Lerski, comp., Herbert Hoover and Poland: A Documentary History of a Friendship, Stanford, CA, 1977

    (Selections from the H. Hoover papers in Hoover Archives, Stanford, CA.. show how the ARA helped the Polish population, esp. children, in the aftermath of WWI and then during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20. Herbert Hoover was treated as a hero in Poland and there is a statue of him in Warsaw.

    George J. (Jerzy) Lerski (1917-1992), was an active member of the Polish Democratic Party (SD); fought the Germans in Poland in September 1939; joined the Polish army in France; escaped to England and was parachuted into Poland 1942; traveled as a courier to London, 1943, then worked for the Polish government there. He obtained his Ph. D. in history at Georgetown University, 1953, and taught at several U. S. universities before joining the faculty at the University of San Francisco, 1966. He published books and articles, also a bibliography on Polish-Jewish relations. He died when revising the Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, completed by Piotr Wrobel and Richard J. Kozicki, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, and London, 1996; Lerski's biographical sketch, ibid., pp. 298-299.)


    B. The Birth of Czechoslovakia, 1914-1918

    (i). Detailed Studies

    Dagmar Perman, The Shaping of the CzechoSlovak State. Diplomatic History of the Boundaries of Czecho-slovakia, 1914-1920, Leiden, 1962.

    (By a diplomatic historian sympathetic to Czechoslovakia.)

    Josef Kalvoda, The Genesis of Czecho-slovakia, East European Monographs, 209, New York, 1986;

    (A"revisionist" work. The author, a Czech historian critical of over-emphasis on the role of T. G. Masaryk, details the work of other Czech politicians, mainly in the home country.)

    Louis H. Rees, The Czechs during World War I: The Path to Independence, East Eur. Monographs, 1992.

    (Deals with the domestic situation in last two years of war; reviewed by Jiri Koralka, Austrian History Yearbook, vol. XXVI, 1995, pp. 276-277)

    Betty Miller Unterberger, The United States, Revolutionary Russia and the Rise of Czechoslovakia, Chapel Hill, 1989.

    (B. M. Unterberger, b. Glasgow, Scotland, studied in U. S. and then taught at Texas A and M University. This is an excellent study with a most useful bibliography on the Czechoslovak question in 1914-21.)

    For a contemporary view of the Czechoslovak struggle for independence, 1914-18, by a participant, see:

    Vladimir Nosek, Independent Bohemia. An Account of the Czecho-Slovak Struggle for Liberty, London, Toronto, New York, 1918

    (The author was Secretary of the Czechoslovak Legation, London, at the time.)

    See also: same, Hungary in the Age of the Two World Wars: 1914-1945, Columbia University Press, New York, 2008.

    R. W. Seton-Watson, "The Formation of the Czechoslovak State," in: H. W. V. Temperley, A History of the Peace Conference of Paris, Oxford, 1920, reprint 1968, vol. VI, Part III (pp. 278-286).

    (R. W. Seton-Watson was the pre-eminent British historian of East Central and South-East European peoples at this time. This is an account written just after the events it describes.)

    For a reassessment of T. G. Masaryk's WW I ideas on future Central Europe, see:

    Francesco Leoncini, "T. G. Masaryk's 'Nova Evropa:' A Reinterpretation, " in: Historical Reflections on Central Europe. Selected Papers from the Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies, edited by Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, Warsaw, 1995, pp. 65-73.

    (F. Leoncini was then professor of Slavic History at the Universita Ca'Foscari di Venezia; among his publications is an edited Italian translation of T. G. Masaryk's work: The New Europe. A Slavic Point of View.)

    [NOTE: For the memoirs of Masaryk and Benes, see sec. 3, Czechoslovakia, below].

    (C) Hungary, War, the Hungarian Revolutions, 1918-19, and the Treaty of Trianon, 1920

    (i) Surveys and collective works on the period

    Peter F. Sugar, Hanak and Frank, eds., A History of Hungary, Bloomington, IN, 1990, ch. XV and XVI (pp. 267-318)

    (Excelllent accounts by prominent scholars.)

    Bela K. Kiraly and Nandor F.Dreisziger, eds., East Central European Society in World War I. War and Society in East Central Europe, New York, 1985;

    (Bela Kiraly, 1912-2009) commanded the Hungarian forces F. Dreisziger is a Canadian historian of Hungarian origin, who taught for many years at the Royal Military College of Canada, publlished many articles on Hungarian history and edited the Review of Hungarian Studies.)

    Istvan I. Mocsy, The Effects of World War I, the Uprooted: Hungarian Refugees and their Impact on Hungarian Domestic Politics, 1918-1921, East Eur. Monograph no. 147, New York, 1983.

    (ii) On the Hungarian Revolutions of 1918-19 and the Hungarian Soviet Republic see:

    Tibor Hajdu, The Hungarian Soviet Republic, Budapest, 1979.

    (Uuseful, though written and published under some political restrictions.)

    Alfred D. Low, The Soviet Hungarian Republic and the Paris Peace Conference, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, vol. 53, part 10, Philadelphia, 1963;

    (A. D. Low, b. Vienna 1913, studied in Vienna and U. S. taught at various U. S. universities. He published several books on modern European history.)

    Peter Pastor, Hungary between Wilson and Lenin: The Hungarian Revolution of 1918-1919 and the Big Three, East European Monographs 20, Boulder CO., 1976

    (Pastor is an American historian of Hungarian descent. He was then teaching at Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, N. J.)

    Peter Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary and its Neighbor States, 1918-1919, East Eur. Mon. 240, New York, 1988.

    Gyorgi Peteri, "Effects of World War I: War Communism in Hungary, 1919," in War and Society in East Central Europe, vol. XVI, New York, 1984.

    (In 2009, Gyorgy G. Peteri was a Professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.)

    R.Tokes, The Hungarianian Soviet Republic: the Origins and Role of the Communist Party of Hungary in the Revolutions of 1918-1919, New York, 1967.

    (R. Tokes, b. Budapest, 1935, is a Political Scientist, author of several books, then teaching at the University of Connecticut; this is the standard American work on the topic.)

    (iii) On the Treaty of Trianon, 1920, see:

    Bela Kiraly and Laszlo Veszpremy, Trianon and East Central Europe, East Eur. Monographs, no. 418, New York, 1995.

    (By Hungarian-American historians; sympathetic to Hungary.)

    Maria Ormos, From Padua to the Trianon, 1918-1920, East Eur. Mon. no. 298, New York, 1991;

    (Translation of a detailed history by a Hungarian historian.)

    Same, Hungary in the Age of the Two World Wars: 1914-1945, Columbia University Press, 2008.

    For a contemporary British view, see:

    H. W. V. Temperley, "The New Hungary," in: same, ed., A HISTORY OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF PARIS, Oxford, 1921, rept. 1969, vol. IV, ch. IX, pt. II, (pp. 485-497), and: "The Hungarian Treaty," ibid., ch. VII, C (pp. 415-428).

    (D) The Balkans in World War I.

    1. For an overview, see:

    Barbara Jelavich, HISTORY OF THE BALKANS. Twentieth Century, vol. 2 Cambridge, UK, 1993 (reprint of 1983 edition), ch. 4 (pp. 106-133).

    (B. Jelavich, 1923 1994(?) was the leading American historian of the Modern Balkans and Balkan-Russian relations in the later part of the 20th c.. She often published jointly with her husband, Charles Jelavich, also an American historian of the Balkans.)

    2 For Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I, see chapters on these countries in:

    Bela F. Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, eds., EAST CENTRAL EUROPEAN SOCIETY IN WORLD WAR I. War and Society in East Central Europe, vol. XIX, New York, 1985.

    For contemporary British experts' accounts and views of the Balkans in WWI,, see:

    H. W. V. Temperley, ch. VII, V, pt. II, Albania, in, same, ed., A HISTORY OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF PARIS, vol. IV, Oxford, 1921, 1969, (pp. 338-347); W. J. M. Childs, The New Bulgaria, pp. 444-461, ibid., also: The Bulgarian Treaty, pp. 411-415, ibid., ; R. G. D. Laffan, ch. IV The Liberation of the New Nationalities, on Yugoslavia, pp. 172-212, ibid; Rumania, pp. 213-256, ibid


    (iii) For Balkan diplomatic history 1919-20, see:

    (A) Bulgaria, Treaty of Neuilly.

    Georgi P. Genov, Bulgaria and the Treaty of Neuilly, Sofia, Danov, 1935;

    (An older, still useful study by a Bulgarian historian.)

    (B) Romania, 1914-21

    Richard Frucht, Dunarea Noastra; Romania, the Great Powers, and the Danube Question, 1914-1921, Boulder, CO, East European Quarterly, 1982;

    (Frucht, an American historian specializing in the Balkan, then taught at Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO. He edited The: Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe, Garland, New York, 2000.)

    Sherman D. Spector, Rumania at the Paris Conference: A Study of the Diplomacy of Ioan I. C. Bratianu, New York, 1962.

    (Spector, b. 1927, is an American historian, specialist in Romanian and Russian history; he was then Professor Emeritus of Russell Sage College and lived in Orange County, CT. Ioan I. C. Bratianu, 1864-1927, was the most prominent Romanian statesman in the period 1900-1927, several times Prime Minister, including the period in question, except for 1920-21.)

    For R. W. Seton-Watson's activities and correspondence with Romanian politicians, 1906-20 see:

    Cornelia Bodea and Hugh Seton-Watson, eds., R. W. SETON-WATSON AND THE ROMANIANS, 1906-1920, 2 vols, Bucharest, 1988.

    (R. W. Seton-Watson was the pre-eminent British historian of East Central and S. E. Europe in the early 20th century. C. Bodea is a prominent Romanian historian; the late Hugh Seton-Watson, a British historian of Russia, was the son of R. W. Seton-Watson.)

    (C) Yugoslavia, 1914-21.

    Dmitrije Djordjevic and Stephen Fischer-Galati, eds., The Creation of Yugoslavia, 1914-1918, Santa Barbara, 1980.

    (Djodrjevic, an American historian of Yugoslav origin, was then teaching at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Fischer-Galati, an American historian of Romanian origin, was Professor Emeritus the University of Colorado at Boulder and edited the East European Quarterly, begun in 1967.)

    Ivo J. Lederer, Yugoslavia at the Paris Conference: A Study in Frontier- Making, New Haven, CT, 1963.

    (Lederer, b. Zagreb, Croatia, 1929, studied in U. S. and was an American historian specializing in E. Europe.)

    For R. W. Seton-Watson and the Yugoslavs, 1906-41, see:

    Hugh Seton-Watson et al, eds., R. W. SETON-WATSON AND THE YUGOSLAVS. Correspondence 1906-1941, 2 vols., London-Zagreb, 1976.

    (On R. W. Seton-Watson, see Part I, sections on Hungary 1867-1914, also late 19th c. and early 20th c. Balkans.)


    A. Surveys

    For good, short, surveys, see:

    R. J. Crampton, EASTERN EUROPE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, London, New York, 1996,

    (Crampton is a historian of Bulgaria teaching at Cambridge University. This book has an introductory survey, short chapters by country, and a chapter on ideological currents

    (On Crampton, see pt. I., Historical Atlases, pt. II, General Surveys).

    Robin Okey, Eastern Europe 1740-1985, Feudalism to Communism, 2nd ed. Minneapolis, MN, 1986, ch. 7, (pp. 157-180).

    (R. Okey, a British historian, treats E. Europe within the general European context.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, The Price of Freedom. A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present, N. Y., 1992, pb. 1993, rev. ed., 2003, ch. 7, pp. 201-235.

    i(Brief, cogent survey of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland in the interwar period by an eminent American historian of Polish origin, Professor emeritus Yale University.)

    b. More detailed

    C. A. Macartney and A. W. Palmer, Independent Eastern Europe. A History, London, New York, 1962

    (C. A. Macartney was the pre-eminent British historian of Hungary; for biographical information, see Part I, Habsburg Empire 1815-1918. A. W. Palmer was a British historian who wrote on 19-20th century European history. This is a mostly diplomatic history, sympathetic to Hungary.)

    See also

    Joseph Rothschild, East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars, Seattle, Wash., 1974, and reprint 1990, vol. IX of the History of Eastern Europe, edited by Peter F. Sugar and Donald F. Treadgold of the University of Washington, Seattle, Wash;. 2nd edition, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, and updated versions edited by Nancy M. Wingfield, New York, 2000, 2008.

    (This work by an American political scientist, Professor Emeritus of Columbia University, New York, d. 1999, gives excellent, detailed, chapters on each country but does not deal with foreign policy. )

    NOTE: Until the publication of the Rotschild book, the best known survey was by the British historian, Hugh Seton-Watson (1916-1984), Eastern Europe Between the Wars, 1918-1941, London, 1945, and reprints. As the author admits in the preface to the 3rd edition (1962), this book reflects the views of his generation of educated young Britons at this time, that is, their admiration of the Soviet Union both between the wars and in World War II. He states that if he were to write the book again, he would acknowledge that much of what he saw as national shortcomings in East European countries stemmed from the heritage of the past.)

    Antony Polonsky, The Little Dictators. The History of Eastern Europe since 1918, London, 1975.

    (Balanced survey by a South African-born historian of Polish-Jewish descent, a specialist on 20th Polish,. Polish-Jewish relations, and the history of the Jews in Poland. He is the editor of a series of very valuable, scholarly annual volumes on the history of Jews in Poland, Polin. He is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University, and in the leadership of the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Wash. D.C.)

    Peter F. Sugar, ed., Native Fascism in the Successor States, 1918-1945, Santa Barbara, 1971.

    (Peter Sugar, b. in Hungary, d. 1999, taught for many years at. Washington University, Seattle; he was an outstanding American historian of E. Europe, especially the Balkans.)

    c. Art in interwar E. Europe

    S. A. Mansbach, Modern Art in Eastern Europe: From the Baltic to the Balkans, 1890-1939, Cambridge, UK, 1999.

    (A useful study of modernism in the art of E. European countries;. see Alla Rosenfield's review, Slavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 647- 648.)


    d. The Economies of interwar East Central Europe.

    Gabor Batonyi, Britain and East Central Europe, 1918-1933, Oxford, 1999.

    (Batonyi, a historian of Hungarian descent then teaching at the University of Bradford, UK, details British interest in reconstructing the economic unity of the Danube Basin, centering on Vienna, then Budapest. There is much interesting economic information in the book, but British commitment to this project was not as strong as presented by the author, see Cienciala, Slavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 644-645.)

    Nicolas Spulber, The State and Economic Development in Eastern Europe, New York, 1966, (pp. 12-42).

    (A good, short, survey of state-sponsored industrial development up to 1945 by an American Economist. Spulber, b. Romania, 1915, d. US, 2003, was the author of numerous books on East European Economics and Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.)

    M. C. Kaser and E. A Radice, eds., The Economic History of Eastern Europe 1919- 1975, vols. I, II, Oxford, 1985-86.

    (Kaser was then Professorial Fellow of St. Anthony's College, Oxford; Radice was a fellow at the same college after a distinguished career in British government service. This is an informative and competent survey.)

    Wilbert E. Moore, ed., Economic Demography of Eastern and Southern Europe, League of Nations, Geneva, 1945, reprint 1972.

    (Still valuable for rare data.)

    Sidney Pollard, Colin Holmes, eds., Documents of European Economic History. The End of the Old Europe 1915-1939, New York, 1972.

    (At the time of publication, Pollard was Professor of Economic History, University of Sheffield, UK, while Holmes was Lecturer in Economic History there. These documents focus on France, Germany, German Reparations, and Soviet Russia, but also include a few items on the effects of the war on Austria-Hungary, and the postwar problems of these countries.)

    Wojciech Roszkowski, Land Reforms in East Central Europe after World War One, Warsaw, 1995.

    (A good sketch of the background before 1914, including the Baltic States followed by a study of postwar land reforms, their implementation, and effects. In 2000-2003, the author held the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.,and then returned to Poland; the chair moved, with prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, to the Institute of World Politics, Washington, D.C.)

    Alice Teichova and P. L. Cottrell, eds., International Business and Central Europe 1918-1939, Leicester and New York, 1983.

    (Teichova is a Czech and Cottrell a British historian. The book has much valuable material on foreign, especially German investments in the region.)



    A. Interwar Czechoslovakia.

    (i). General see relevant chapters in

    Joseph Korbel, Twentieth Century Czechoslovakia. The Meanings of Its History, New York, 1977 (ch. one through seven).

    (Very readable; condemns Benes policy of accepting the Munich Agreement in late September 1938. Korbel was a Czechoslovak diplomat in the interwar, war and immediate postwar periods; he emigrated to the U. S. and taught political science at the University of Colorado. He was the father of Madeleine Albright and teacher of Pres.G.W. Bush's adviser on Soviet affairs, later Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice.)

    Victor S. Mamatey and Radomir Luza, eds., A History of the Czechoslovak Republic 1918-1948, Princeton, N. J., 1977

    (The work has excellent contributors to a still a very useful volume. For Mamatey's biographical information, see section on World War II Luza, the son a Czech general killed during the war, fought in the Czech resistance; see the son's book: The Hitler Kiss. A Memoir of the Czech Resistance, Baton Rouge, La., 2002.)

    Vera Olivova,The Doomed Democracy: Czechoslovakia in a Disrupted Europe, 1918-38, Montreal, 1972.

    (By a Czech scholar; good illustrations.)

    H. Gordon Skilling, ed., Czechoslovakia, 1918-88. Seventy Years from Independence, New York, 1991.

    (Skilling, 1912-2002, was a Canadian political scientist, Professor Emeritus University of Toronto, specialist on 20th century Czechoslovakia.)

    [On the Czechoslovak Crisis, 1938, see under B. Appeasement and Eastern Europe, below]

    On Czechoslovakia after Munich, see:

    Theodore Prohanka, The Second Republic: The Disintegration of post-Munich Czechoslovakia, October 1938-March 1939, East European Monographs no. 90, Boulder CO, and New York, 1981.

    (ii). For useful chapters on culture, education, government, history, nationalities, politics, religions in interwar Czechoslovakia, some written by contemporary specialists, see:

    Melissa Feinberg, Elusive Equality: Gender, Citizenship, and the Limits of Democracy in Czechoslovakia, 1918-1950, Pittsburgh, PA, 2006.

    (Reviewed by Bradley A. Abrams, Slavic Review, v. 66, no. 2, summer 2007, pp. 318-31, and by Tara Zahra, HABSBURG, H-net Reviews, April 2007.)

    Robert J. Kerner, ed., Czechoslovakia. Twenty Years of Independence, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1940.

    (A near contemporary view; R. J. Kerner, 1887-1956, was an American scholar of Central Europe.)

    Tara Zahra, Kidnapped Souls: National Indifference and the Battle for Children in the Bohemian Lands, 1900-1948 (Cornell University Press, 2008).

    (Zahara, U of Michigan Ph.D. 2005, studies the German-Czech battle for the national allegiance of children in Bohemian lands in the pre-WWI, interwar, and WWII years. Both the Germans and the Czechs of the region considered it their homeland, but the Germans were forced to leave after the war due to their majority support of Hitler's Germany.The book was awarded the Rosenberg, Barbara Jelavich and Czechoslovak Studies Assoc. prizes.)

    For a contemporary Czech presentation on interward education and culture, see:

    Dr. R. Stransky, The Educational and Cultural System of the Czechoslovak Republic, Prague n. d. (probably 1935-37).

    (iii). For a good, short study of the Czechoslovak interwar government and political parties, see:

    Edward Taborsky, Czechoslovak Democracy at Work, London, 1945.

    (Taborsky was Private Secretary to President Edvard Benes, 1940-45. see his valuable memoirs under Czechoslovakia in World War II, below.)

    (iv). On Communism in interwar Czechoslovakia, see:

    Bernard Wheaton, Radical Socialism in Czechoslovakia: Bohumir Smeral, the Czech Road to Socialism, and the Origins of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, East Eur. Mon. 213, New York, 1986.

    (Bohumir Smeral, 1880-1941, was the leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party and founder, with Antonin Zapotocky, of the Czechoslovak Communist Party in May 1921. He left Czechoslovakia after the Munich Agreement for Moscow and died there in May 1941.)

    Paul E. Zinner, Communist Strategy and Tactics in Czechoslovakia, 1918- 1948, Westport, CT, 1963, reprint, Westport, CT, 1975.

    (P. Zinner, b. Kosice, Czechoslovakia, 1922, was educated in U. S., served in U. S. army, has published on communism in Central Europe, USSR and the world. He taught at the University of California, Davis, CA.)

    (v) On Fascism in interwar Czechoslovakia,

    Jan Havranek and Joseph F. Zacek chapters in: Peter F. Sugar, ed., Native Fascism in the Successor States, (1971), pp. 47-62.

    (Havranek, d. 2003, was a Czech scholar; Zacek is an American historian of Czechoslovakia who taught at SUNY, Albany.)

    (vi). On the Czechoslovak interwar economy, see:

    Alice Teichova, The Czechoslovak Economy, 1918-1980, London, 1988.

    (Solid work by a Czech economic historian.)

    Same: An Economic Background to Munich: International Business and Czechoslovakia, 1918-1938, Cambridge, UK, 1974.

    (The author was criticized for overemphasizing the economic causes of Munich.)

    (vii) On Czech historiography, see:

    Andrew Rossos, "Czech Historiography, Part 1," CANADIAN SLAVONIC PAPERS, vol. 24, no. 3, 1983 (pp. 245-260) and Part 2, same, vol. 24, no. 4, 1982 (pp. 359-85).

    (Rossos then taught at the University of Toronto. Ssee also Part I, Historiography.)


    There are several works by and on T. G. Masaryk (1850-1937), the father of the Czechoslovak state, and President 1918-35:

    (A)Works by T. G. Masaryk and conversations with him

    Tomas G. Masaryk, The Making of a State: Memories and Observations, 1914- 1918, London, New York, 1927, reprint New York, 1969;

    same, The Meaning of Czech History, Chapel Hill, NC, 1974. - lectures.

    Draga B. Shillinglaw, ed., The Lectures of Professor T. G. Masaryk at the University of Chicago, Summer 1902, Lewisburg, Pa., and London, 1978.

    Karel Capek, Talks with T. G. Masaryk, trans. Dora Round, London, 1935.

    (Karel Capek , 1890-1938, was a famous Czech novelist, playwright and journalist, author of : The Good Soldier Schweik. )

    Same, Masaryk on Thought and Life. [conversations with Karel Capek], London, 1938, New York, 1971.

    Same, Talks with T. G. Masaryk, Michael Henry Heim, ed. and transl., North Haven, CT, 1995

    (B) Works about T. G. Masaryk.

    Milic Capek and Karel Hruby, eds., T. G. Masaryk in Perspective: Comments and Criticism, Flushing, N. Y., 1981.

    Hanus J. Hajek, T. G. Masaryk Revisited. A Critical Assessment, East Eur. Monographs, no. 139, New York, 1983.

    Peter Hanak et al, eds., Thomas G. Masaryk, 3 vols, New York, 1985.

    Eva Schmidt-Hartmann, Thomas G. Masaryk's Realism: Origins of a Czech Political Concept, Munich, 1984

    (on his philosophy);

    H. Gordon Skilling, T. G. MASARYK, 1882-1914, University Park, Pa., 1993.

    (Excellent study of TGM before the outbreak of the First World War by a Canadian specialist on Czech politics and history.)

    Roman Szporluk, The Political Thought of Thomas G. Masaryk, East European Monographs no. 85, Boulder Co. and New York, 1981.

    (Szporluk is a specialist in modern Polish, Ukrainian and Czech history; he then taught at the Ukrainian Studies Center, Harvard University.)

    Zbynek A. Zeman, The Masaryks: The Making of Czechoslovakia, London, New York, 1976 and later reprint

    (Zeman is a Czech historian living in UK, Professor Emeritus Oxford University. This is a good, popular account of T. G. M. and his son Jan.)

    (ix) Edvard Benes (1884-1948), Masaryk's right hand man in World War I; Foreign Minister in 1918-35; President 1935-38, then head of the government-in-exile, London, 1940-45, and President again, 1945-48.

    (A)Works by E. Benes:

    Edvard Benes, Memoirs of Dr. Edvard Benes: From Munich to New War and New Victory, tarns. by Godfrey Lias,London, New York, 1954

    (written at the end of WW II taking care not to offend the USSR.)

    Same, My War Memoirs, London, trans. by Paul Selver, New York, 1928, and reprint, Westport CT, 1971.:

    Milan Hauner. ed. and preface, The Rise and Fall of a Nation. Czechoslovakia 1938-1941, , E.Eur. Monographs no. 637, Boulder CO and New York, 2004.

    (Milan Hauner, b. 1940, is a historian of Czechoslovakia and Czech-German relations,, teaching at the University of Wisconsin, Madison,WI. His mother was a German from Thuringen; his father, Vilem Bohumir Hauner, was a leading bookbinder in Czechoslovakia and chairman of the Czechoslovak Union of the Deaf. This Union had the most modern schools for the deaf, organized by Vilem's mother, Milan's grandmother, Jitka Haunerova-Stankova. For Milan Hauner's biography, see University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.)

    (B)Works on E. Benes

    Edvard Taborsky, President Edward Benes Between East and West, 1938- 1948, Stanford, CA, 1981

    (Insightful memoirs by one of his private secretaries.)

    Jan Opocensky, ed., EDWARD BENES. Essays and Reflections presented on the occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, London, 1945.

    (By several of his, mostly English, admirers.)

    Zbynek Zeman with Antonin Klimek, The Life of Edvard Benes, 1884-1948. Czechoslovakia in Peace and War, Oxford, 1997.

    (For Zeman, see book on the Masaryks, above. A. Klimek was then Senior Research Fellow, Institute of History of the Czech Army, Prague. The book portrays Benes as a cold person, friendless except for his wife Hanna; driven by the ambition to become President, which he achieved; also as totally confident that he was master of the art of politics. There is no bibliography, but sources are cited in footnotes, there is a note on sources and the abbreviations list the archives used. There are 7 illustrations.)

    (x) Masaryk and Benes's foreign policy, 1918-38,

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "The Foreign Policy of Edvard Benes, 1918-1938, " in Mamatey and Luza, A HISTORY OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC, pp. 216-238.

    (Balanced account by the pre-eminent American historian of interwar French-Polish-Czechoslovak relations, also 20th c. Poland and Modern East Central Europe.)

    (i) Czechoslovak German relations, 1919-33

    F. Gregory Campbell, CONFRONTATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. Weimar, Germany and Czechoslovakia, Chicago, 1975.

    (Excellent study by an American scholar.) See also

    (ii) Czechoslovak-French-Polish Relations, 1918-38.

    Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies, 1919-1925, Minneapolis, 1962.

    (Although written before the opening of the French archives, this work is still a most valuable study. The book was awarded the AHA Henry Beer Prize, 1963).

    Wandycz, THE TWILIGHT OF FRENCH EASTERN ALLIANCES 1926-1936. French- Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from Locarno to the remilitarization of the Rhineland, Cambridge, Mass, 1988.

    (Detailed and reliable study. This book was also awarded the AHA Henry Beer Prize in 1989.)

    See also:

    Zygmunt J. Gasiorowski, "Polish-Czechoslovak Relations, 1922-1926," The Slavonic and East European Review, v. 35, no. 85, London, 1957, pp. 473-504.

    (By a Polish historian, then Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA.)

    [NOTE: On Munich, see section 5 on APPEASEMENT below]

    (xi) On the constituent nationalities and ethnic minorities of interwar Czechoslovakia, see:

    Carol Skalnik Leff, National Conflict in Czechoslovakia. The Making and Remaking of a State, 1918-1987, Princeton, N. J., 1988.

    (Skalnik Leff, an American political scientist, was then teaching at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL; ch. 2 is a good overview of the nationalities problems of interwar Czechoslovakia.)

    (a) Slovaks in interwar Czechoslovakia.

    James R. Felak, At the Price of the Republic: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, 1929-1938, Pittsburgh, PA., 1994.

    (Excellent study; Felak teaches at the University of Washington, Seattle.)

    Yashayahu A. Jelinek, The Lust for Power: Nationalism, Slovakia and the Communists, 1918-1948, East European Monographs, no. 130, New York, 1983;

    (Jelinek obtained his Ph. D. at Indiana University, 1966. He is an Israeli historian then living in Beer-Sheva, Israel.)

    same, The Parish Republic: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, East European Monographs, Boulder, CO., 1976.

    (A v. negative view.)

    Owen V. Johnson, SLOVAKIA 1918-1938; Education and the Making of a Nation, East European Monographs no. 180, New York, 1985.

    (Johnson then taught in the School of Journalism, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. He is a specialist on the Czech Republic and Slovakia.)

    Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia, New York, 1995

    (Kirschbaum was then professor of political science and coordinator, International Studies Programme York University, Toronto. This is a survey written from the Slovak point of view.)

    Jozef Lettrich, History of Modern Slovakia, London, 1956

    (A Czech view, favorable to the Czech-Slovka union.)

    Joseph A. Mikus, SLOVAKIA. A Political History, 1918-1950, Milwaukee, Wisc., 1963

    (An anti-Czech view.).

    (b) The Ruthenians in interwar Czechoslovakia (since 1945, in western Ukraine, where they demand autonomy.)

    Paul Robert Magocsi, THE SHAPING OF A NATIONAL IDENTITY. SUB-CARPATHIAN RUS', 1848-1948, Cambridge, Mass., 1978 (Part 1 ch. 4, Part 3, ch. 10-12). 1982.

    (Magocsi, author of the excellent Historical Atlas of East Central Europe (Seattle, WA, 1994, new eds. 2001, 2003), Ukraine. A Historical Atlas, (Toronto, 1985), and A History of Ukraine (Toronto, 1996), then taught at the University of Toronto. He is a specialist on modern Ukraine.)

    (c) Poles in interwar Czechoslovakia: Zaolzie (Trans Olza)

    Boguslaw Kozusznik, The Problem of Cieszyn Silesia, London, 1943.

    (Good presentation of the Polish claim to western Teschen/Cieszyn, or Zaolzie, with rare maps and demographic tables. Kozusznik,(1910-1996), a Polish native of Cieszyn [G. Teschen], born into a mining family there and educated as a physician in Prague, was then a member of the Polish National Council, an advisory body representing P. political parties attached to the Polish government-in-exile, also chief of Medical Services for the Polish Navy. He returned to Poland after the war, was deputy minister of Health 1947-1959, and played a very active role in UNICEF, where he represented Poland from 1959 onward. For a Polish lang. biogr. sketch of Kozusznik by his second wife, Lidia, see Google-Wikipedia: article in Gazeta pl.Krakow, 12/28,2006.)

    Ellen L. Paul, "Czech Teschen Silesia and the Controversial Czechoslovak Census of 1921," Polish Review, vol. XLIII, no. 2, 1998, pp. 161-171.

    (The author obtained her Ph. D. at the University of Kansas, 1999. This work is based on her dissertation research, done with the aid of Fulbright and Irex fellowships in the Polish and Czech republics.).

    (d) The Germans in interwar Czechoslovakia:

    Herman Kopecek, "Zusammenarbeit and Spoluprace: Sudeten German-Czech cooperation in Interwar Czechoslovakia," in: NATIONALITIES PAPERS, vol. 24, no. 1, ed., Nancy M. Wingfield, March 1996, pp. 63-78.

    (Such cooperation was rare before 1926 and rarer still after 1935,during the undermining of the Czechoslovak state by the Nazi Sudeten German Party led by Konrad Henlein, financed from Berlin.)

    Radomir Luza, THE TRANSFER OF THE SUDETEN GERMANS. A Study of Czech-German Relations, 1933-1962, New York, 1964, Introd., Part I, II, through the Munich Crisis of 1938, pp. 1-186.

    (For R. Luza, see Mamatey and Luza book on the Czechoslovak Republic, above.)

    Elizabeth Wiskemann, CZECHS AND GERMANS. A Study of the Struggle in the Historic Provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, London, Oxford, New York, Toronto, 1938, 2nd ed., 1967 .

    (E. Wiskemann was a British journalist and scholar; she originally wrote the book for the Royal Institute of International Affairs and it is still a valuable study.)

    (e) The Jews in interwar Czechoslovakia.

    (See esp. articles on the Jewish Question in Slovakia), EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, vol. 10, Parts 1-2, University of California, Irvine, CA, 1983.

    C. Interwar Hungary.

    (i). Surveys

    For a brief overview, see:

    Peter F. Sugar et al, eds., A History of Hungary, (Bloomington, IN, 1990). ch. XVII and part of XVIII.

    See also:

    Jorg K. Hoensch, A History of Modern Hungary. 1867-1996,Translated from German by Kim Traynor, London, 2nd ed., 1996.

    (Hoensch, d. 2003, was Professor of East European History at the University of the Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany. This edition covers the post-communist period to mid-1994. There is a useful chronology of Hungarian history through July 1994, and a bibliography listing works, most in German.)

    Paul Ignotus, HUNGARY, New York, 1972.

    (Very good on intellectual history by a Hungarian. Ignotus, b. 1901, was imprisoned in communist Hungary after World War II; see his memoirs, published 1960.)

    The most detailed study is :

    C. A. Macartney, October Fifteenth. A History of Modern Hungary 1929-1945, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1961.

    (Macartney, a British historian of the Habsburg Monarchy and Hungary, loved Hungary and Hungarians.)

    Ignac Romsics, Hungary in the Twentieth Century, Budapest, 1999.

    (Romsics, b. 1951, Ph.D. 1996, author of several books on 20th c. Hungary, was Prof. of History at Esterhazy College, Budapest, 2008.)

    Same, Twentieth Century Hungary and the Great Powers, New York, 1995.

    (ii). On Hungarian statesmen of the interwar period, see:

    (a) Istvan Bethlen (1874-1946 Prime Minister, 1921-31; taken prisoner by Soviet troops in Budapest, 1945, he died in prison in Moscow on 5 October 1946.)

    William A. Batkay, Authoritarian Politics in a Transitional State: Istvan Bethlen and the Unified Party in Hungary, 1919-1926, East Eur. Mon. 102, New York, 1982;

    Thomas Lorman, Hungary, 1920-1925: Istvan Bethlen and the Politics of Consolidation, New York, 2007,

    (The author was then asst. prof. of History, Univ. of Cincinnati; see Columbia Univ. Press release on book.)

    Ignac Romsics, Istvan Bethlen. A Great Conservative Statesman, 1874-1945, East Eur. Monographs, New York, 1995.


    (b) Nicholas de Nagabanya Horthy (1868-1957 Regent of Hungary 1920-1944; died in exile, Portugal.)

    Nicholas Horthy, Memoirs, New York, 1957;

    (His own story, written in old age and in exile. His remains were reburied in his native Hungary in the 1990s.)

    Thomas L. Sakmyster, Hungary's Admiral on Horseback: Miklos Horthy, 1918- 1944, East European Monographs/ Columbia University Press, 1998.

    (Sakmyster was then professor of history at the University of Cincinnati. This is a balanced study of a controversial statesman. See excellent review of this book by Istvan Deak, "Survivor in a Sea of Barbarism," New York Review of Books, April 8, 1999, pp. 53-56. On Deak, see below.)

    (c) Pal Teleki (1879-1941 (Premier 1920-21, 1939-41 politician, geographer, and chief of Hungarian Scouting Assoc.. Both he and Horthy refused to cooperate with Germany in its attack on Poland and gave about 100,000 Polish troops asylum in Hungary, whence many proceeded to join the Polish Army in France. Teleki planned to leave Hungary and, with Horthy, to set up a Hungarian govrnment in exile in the U.S., but Horthy agreed to receive a piece of Yugoslavia from Hitler, and Teleki committed suicide on 3 April, 1941. His reputation is blemished by anti-Jewish laws passed when he was premier in 1921 and 1938-40. This information is based on the Teleki biography in Wikipedia.)

    Lorant Tilkovszky, Pal Teleki (1879-1941): a Biographical Sketch, Budapest, 1974.

    The official, negative view under communist rule, but useful.)

    (iii). On Hungarian interwar politics, see:

    Istvan Deak, "Hungary," in: Hans Rogger and Eugene Weber, eds., THE EUROPEAN RIGHT, Berkeley, CA, 1965; (pp. 346-407).

    ( Deak , b. Hungary, 1926, is the pre-minent American historian of Hungar, prof. em. Columbia University, New York, N. Y.)

    Lorand Dombrady, Army and Politics in Hungary, 1938-1945, ed. by Gyula Razso, Boulder CO, 2005.(See Paul Dunay, Slavic Review, v. 66, no. 3, fall 2007, pp. 524-525.)

    Zsuzsa L. Nagy, The Liberal Opposition in Hungary, 1919-1945, Budapest, 1983.

    Janos Pelle, Sowing the Seeds of Hatred: Anti-Jewish Laws and Hungarian Public Opinion, New York, N.Y., 2004.

    Ferenc Poloskei, Hungary after Two Revolutions, 1919-1922, Budapest, 1980.

    (By a Marxist historian.)

    John C. Swanson, The Remnants of the Habsburg Monarchy: The Shaping of Modern Austria and Hungary, 1918-1922, New York, N.Y.,2001.

    (Swanson was then Assoc. Prof. History, Utica.)

    (iv). On Hungarian interwar communism, see relevant chapters in:

    Bennett Kovrig, COMMUNISM IN HUNGARY: FROM KUN TO KADAR, Stanford, CA, 1979.

    (B. Kovrig, b. Hungary, 1940, , university studies Toronto and London; was then professor Political Science,. University of Toronto.)

    Miklos Molnar, From Bela Kun to Janos Kadar. Seventy Years of Hungarian Communism, (English edition), New York, 1990.

    (By a Hungarian scholar, then professor at the Institute of International Studies, Geneva.)

    (v). On Hungarian interwar fascism, see:

    George Barany, "The Dragon's Teeth; the Roots of Hungarian Fascism," in: Peter F. Sugar ed., Native Fascism in the Successor States, 1918-1945, Santa Barbara, 1971;

    (George Barany, 1922-2001, b. Hungary, was an American historian of Hungarian origin, author of the classic biography of 19th c. Hungarian statesman Istvan Szechenyi,. see this Bibliography, Part I.)

    Miklos Lacko, ARROW-CROSS MEN, NATIONAL SOCIALISTS, 1935- 1944, Budapest, 1969;

    (Written under some political restrictions.)

    Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, THE GREEN SHIRTS AND OTHERS. A History of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania, Stanford, CA, 1970.

    (Nagy-Talavera, b. Hungary, 1929, studied in Austria and U. S, taught at California State University, Chico, CA; this is an excellent study of the fascist movements in these two countries.)

    (vi). On Hungarian interwar foreign policy, see:

    Nandor A. F. Dreisziger, HUNGARY'S WAY TO WORLD WAR II, Toronto, 1968.

    (Good study by a Canadian scholar of Hungarian origin.)

    Gyula Juhasz, Hungarian Foreign Policy 1919-1945, Budapest, 1979

    (By a Hungarian specialist. Ch. 1 through 4 cover the interwar period; generally balanced history though written under some political constraints.)

    Stephen D. Kertesz, DIPLOMACY IN A WHIRLPOOL. Hungary between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, Notre Dame, IN, 1953 (ch. 1-3).

    (S. D. Kertesz, Political Scientist, b. Hungary, 1904, educated in Hungary, France, U. S., Switzerland. He was in Hung. dipl. service 1931-47, then U. S; taught at University of Notre Dame. This is an old but still useful study.)

    C. A. Macartney, HUNGARY AND HER SUCCESSORS: The Treaty of Trianon and its Consequences, 1919-1937, Oxford, London, 1937, reprint 1968.

    (By the prominent British historian of Hungary who agreed with the Hungarian point of view: the need to restore pre WWI Hungary.)

    John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary: the Unwilling Satellite, New York, 1947.

    (By the U. S. ambassador in Hungary, 1933-41; has some information on interwar Hungary.)

    Thomas L. Sakmyster, Hungary, The Great Powers, and the Danubian Crisis, 1936-1939, Athens, Ga., 1980.

    (Sakmyster paints a rather negative picture of Hung. foreign policy in this period; see also his biography of Horthy listed above.)


    (vii) Germans in interwar Hungary and German-Hungarian relations.

    Thomas Spira, German-Hungarian Relations and the Swabian Problem: from Karolyi to Gombos, 1919-1936, East Eur. Mon. 25, New York, 1977

    (Focuses on the German minority in Hungary.)

    same, The German-Hungarian-Swabian Triangle, 1936-1939: the Road to Discord, East Eur. Mon. 285, New York, 1990. (Continuation of the work listed above.)

    (viii) On the Jews in interwar Hungary, see:

    Nathaniel Katzburg, HUNGARY AND THE JEWS: Policy and Legislation, 1920- 1943, Ramat-Gan, Israel, 1981.

    Janos Pelle, Sowing the Seeds of Hatred: Anti-Jewish Laws and Hungarian Public Opinion, 1938-1944, New York, 2004.

    Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, THE GREEN SHIRTS AND OTHERS. (1970) ch. II.

    (On N-Talavera, see v above.)

    (ix) On the Hungarian interwar economy, see:

    T. Ivan Berend and Gyorgy. Ranki, Hungary. A Century of Economic Development, New York, 1974.

    (By two historians of Hungarian origin.; G. Ranki, d. 1988, taught at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Berend, b. 1930, has published several lbooks on the history of E Central Europe and Hungary.)

    Joseph L. Held, ed., The Modernization of Agriculture; Rural Transformation in Hungary, 1848-1975, East Eur. Mon. 63, New York, 1980.

    (Held, an American scholar of Hungary, also edited the Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, New York, 1992)..

    Andrew C. Janos, The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary, 1825-1945, Princeton, N. J., 1982.

    (A. C. Janos, b. Hungary, 1934, studied in Hungary and U. S; taught Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley, C. This is a readable and well documented study.)

    (x). On Hungarian historiography, see:

    Steven Bela Vardy, Modern Hungarian Historiography, E.Eur. Mon. no. 17, New York, 1976

    Same, Clio's Art in Hungary and and in Hungarian-America, East Eur. Mon. 179, New York, 1985.

    (see also article on Hungarian Historiography in American Historical Review October 1992.)


    C. Interwar Poland, 1918-1939.


    For a brief survey of Modern Poland, see:

    Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski, The History of Poland, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2000.

    (An excellent, succinct history focusing on the 20th c., with a glossary and bibliography -- but, alas, no maps. Biskupski holds the chair of Polish and Polish American History at Central State University,)

    Norman Davies, GOD 'S PLAYGROUND. A HISTORY OF POLAND vol. II, New York, 1982, 2003, ch. 19 (pp. 393-434).

    (N. Davies, a Welshman b. in England 1940, is the pre-eminent British historian of modern Poland, but in this work the interwar years are not as well covered as other periods of Polish history.)

    For a more extensive survey of the period 1863-1976, see:

    R. F. Leslie, The History of Poland since 1863, ch. 4-7 (by Antony Polonsky), Cambridge University Press, 1980 (pp. 112-226).

    (A useful survey; but see Polonsky's book on the politics of independent Poland.)

    (ii) ForPolish interwar constitutional development; political parties; politics; minorities; economic, social, cultural development, and Church-State relations, see:

    Jacek Jedruch (1921-1995), Constitutions, Elections and Legislatures in Poland, 1493-1977, University Press of America, 1977.

    Constitutions, Elections and Legislatures in Poland, 1493-1993, EJJ Books, Summit, N.J., 1997 (distr. Hippocrene Press)

    (Jedruch was a nucelar engineer with history as his avocation.)

    Waldemar Paruch and Jan Jachymek, More Than Independence: Polish Political Thought, 1918-1939, Lublin, 2003.

    Neal Pease, Rome's Most Faithful Daughter: The Catholic Church and Independent Poland 1914-1939, Athens, Ohio, 2009.

    Eva Plach, The Clash of Moral Nations: Cultural Politics in Pilsudski's Poland, 1926-1935, Athens, OH, 2009;

    See reviews by Neal Pease in The Polish Review, vol. LII, no. 3, 2007, pp. 395-396, and Patrice M. Dabrowski in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 4, winter 2007, pp. 735-736.

    Bernadotte E. Schmitt, ed., POLAND, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1945.

    (B. E. Schmidt, 1886-1969, was an eminent American historian of international relations. At the time of publication, he was teaching at the University of Chicago. The book has valuable short studies of various aspects of interwar Poland by contemporary specialists.)

    Marci Shore, Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation's Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968, New Haven, CT., 2006.

    (A beautifully written account of Polish intellectuals, writers and artists, most of them of Jewish origin, who were enamored of Marxism until they met with the real thing in Soviet form.. The story ends in 1968 when the communist Polish United Workers' Party waged an anti-Semitic campaign that led to the exodus of thousands of educated Poles of Jewish origin or descent. The author received a prize for this book from the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America in November 2007.)

    Stanislaw Stronski, The Two Polish Consitutions of 1921 and 1935, The Polish Library, Glasgow, 1944.

    (Stanislaw Stronski, 1883-1955, was a prominent National Democratic politician, opponent of J. Pilsudski and the post-1926 Polish governments. He was a close adviser of General W. Sikorski, head of the Polish government-in-exile, Sept. 1939-July 1943:. Grabski was a deputy Premier, 1939-40, and Minister of Information, 1940- 1943. He settled in the UK after WWII and died there. These are his views of the two constitutions.)

    For views of interwar Poland from the perspective of 1985, see papers in:

    Timothy Wiles, ed., POLAND BETWEEN THE WARS, 1918-1939, sec. I, History and Society, Bloomington, IN, 1989 (Conference, Indiana University Polish Studies Center, Feb. 1985, pp. 3-64).

    (Timothy Wiles, d. 2003, was a long time Director of the Polish Studies Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. The book contains papers by Polish and American scholars.)

    See also section iii below.

    (iii) Polish Interwar Politics.

    Antony Polonsky, Politics in Independent Poland, 1921-1939. The Crisis of Constitutional Government, (Oxford, 1972).

    (Balanced, detailed study by a formerly British, now American historian of Polish Jewry and modern Poland;, although not an authority on foreign policy. Polonsky is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum; the author of a History of the Jews in Poland (vols 1, 2, published in 2010; v. 3 expected in 2011), and editor of the annual vols of Polin.)

    Edward D. Wynot, Polish Politics in Transition. The Camp of National Unity and the Struggle for Power, 1935-1939, (Athens, Ga., 1974).

    (Wynot, a Polish-American historian of Poland and East Central Europe, then taught at Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. He shows the rejection of Fascism by most followers of Pilsudski; see: Cienciala review in Reviews in European History, vol. 2, no. 1., March 1976, pp. 87-94; see also his "Poland's Christian Minorities 1919-1939" in Nationalist Papers, v. 13, no. 2, 1985, pp. 209-246, and.Prisoner of history: The Eastern Orthodox Church in Poland in the twentieth century (1997

    Richard M. Watt, Bitter Glory. Poland and Its Fate, 1918-1939, (New York, 1979).

    (Richard M. Watt, b. Berwyn, IL., 1930, had a career as a sales representative, with history as his avocation. This is a well written book very sympathetic to interwar Poland, but with the stereotype, negative view of Polish foreign policy in the 1930s. His other books are :Dare Call it Treason, 1963 and Kings Depart, 1969.)

    (iv) Polish interwar statesmen.

    (a) Jozef Beck (1894-1944), Polish Foreign Minister, Dec. 1932 Sept. 1939.

    John H. Harley, The Authentic Biography of Colonel Beck, based on the Polish by Conrad Wrzos, with introduction by Count Edward Raczynski, (London, 1939.)

    (A good, short biography. John H. Harley was an English journalist who worked in the U.K. for the Polish cause in World War I, then for the Polish government in the interwar period. Conrad Wrzos was a well known Polish journalist of the time; Edward Raczynski, 1891-1993, was Polish ambassador in London, 1933- 1945, also acting Foreign Minister in the Polish government-in-exile, London, 1940- 43, and President of the Polish emigre government, London, 1979-1986. The book was withdrawn from circulation after the establisment of a new Polish government in France on 30 September 1939. Raczynski is the author of memoirs, translated into English, on his work for the Polish government in wartime Britain. He was a great Polish diplomat and statesman.)

    (b) Roman Dmowski (1864-1939) statesman; leader of right-wing National Democratic Party, chief rival of Pilsudski.

    There is no English work dealing specifically with Dmowski in the period 1914- 1939, but see Part I, for Marcus A. Fountain's biography up to 1907 and works on National Democratic movement (Poland, 1864-1914).

    (c) Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941), great pianist-composer who worked for Polish independence in World War I, was Prime Minister, then Foreign Minister in 1919, but opposed Pilsudski and his supporters after 1926, see:

    Janina W. Hoskins, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, 1860-1941; A Biographical Sketch and a Selective List of Reading Materials, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., (1990?)

    (J. M. Hoskins, d. 1995, was born and studied in Poland, came to the U. S. after World War II. She was for many years head of the Polish section, European Division, Library of Congress.)

    Anita Prazmowska, Ignacy Paderewski : Poland in series: Makers of the Modern World, London, Haus, 2009.

    (Good, general study.The inset on Danzig and thePolish Corridor incorrectly states that the Corridor had a German majority in 1918; according to the Prussian Census of 1910, Germans were 42.90% of the population, and probably less by 1918 because of the high Polish birthrate.)

    David Taylor, "Paderewski's Piano," The Smithsonian, March 1999, pp. 30-34.

    (Amusing and informative essay on Paderewski's piano playing, the pianos he used on his concert tours of the U. S. 1891-1900, and the "Paddymania" of New York Ladies at the time.)

    Adam Zamoyski, Paderewski. A Biography of the Great Polish Pianist and Statesman,( New York, 1982; revised ed., London, 2010.

    (Adam Zamoyski, b. New York, 1949, studied in UK, lives in London. He is the author of several books on Polish history.)

    (d) Jozef Pilsudski (1867-1935), soldier and statesman- Socialist fighter for Polish independence, 1892-1918; Head of State and Commander-in-Chief, 1918-22; leader of an authoritarian regime, 1926-35.

    M. K. Dziewanowski, "Joseph Pilsudski 1867-1967," East European Quarterly, vol. II, no. 4, January 1968, pp. 359-383.

    (Deals with the period Nov. 1918- Dec. 1922. Marian Kamil Dziewanowski, b. Poland, 1913 - d. U.S. 2004, authored several books on modern Polish history as well as on Russian and Soviet history and WWII.. He taught at Boston University and the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. )

    Same: Joseph Pilsudski. A European Federalist (Stanford, CA, 1969).

    (V. favorable view of Pilsudski's project of a Polish-Lithuanian-Ukrainian federation, which proved unrealistic due to the strong nationalisms of the time.)

    Andrzej Garlicki, Jozef Pilsudski, new abridged version edited by John Coutovidis, (London, 1995).

    (A. Garlicki, b. Poland, 1935, was at this time a professor of history at the University of Warsaw. This is the translation of an abridged version of his generally negative biography of Pilsudski.)

    Przemyslaw Hauser, "Jozef Pilsudski's Views on the Territorial Shape of the Polish State and His Endeavours to Put them into Effect, 1918-1921," Polish Western Affairs, Poznan, 1992, no. 2, pp. (235)-249, trans. Janina Dorosz.

    (Przemyslaw Hauser, a specialist on interwar Polish-German relations, was then a professor of history at the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.)

    Waclaw. Jedrzejewicz, Pilsudski. A Life for Poland, (New York, 1982).

    (Waclaw Jedrzejewicz, 1892-1993, was a Pilsudski legionnaire in 1914-17, fought in the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20, and held various posts in the interwar Polish army, diplomatic and government services. In U. S. since 1940, he became -- after starting as a factory worker --a professor of Russian and a historian who authored and edited several books and articles. He was a co-founder and served as a long-time director of the Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America for Research in Modern Polish History, New York..)

    Aleksandra Pilsudska, Pilsudski. A Biography by his Wife, (New York, 1941).

    (Aleksandra Pilsudska, 1882- 1963, nee Szczerbinska, was the 2nd wife of Pilsudski. The book gives her view of Pilsudski, but is also important for the author's own biographical information (and see memoirs below).. She worked in the socialist underground for Polish independence before 1914, and that is how she met her future husband. She was also a member of the Polish Military Organization (P.O.W) during WWI. She escaped from Poland with their two daughters in September 1939 and settled in the U.K. She died in London; for her memoirs, see below)

    The Memoirs of Madame Pilsudski, London, 1940 (Polish edition: Wspomnienia, London, 1960).

    W. F. Reddaway, MARSHAL PILSUDSKI, (London, 1939).

    (W. F. Reddaway, 1872-1949, was a British historian of Modern Europe; the book, while partly outdated by more recent research, is still useful.)


    (v) On Communism in interwar Poland:

    M. K. Dziewanowski, The Communist Party of Poland; An Outline of History, Cambridge, Mass., 1976 (revised edition).

    (This is a good study, first published in 1959. On Dziewanowski, see section iv above.).

    Gabriele Simoncini, Revolutionary Organizations and Revolutionaries in Interbellum Poland. A Bibliographical and Biographical Study, (Lewiston, NY, Queenstown, Ont. 1992).

    (G. Simoncini is a historian of the Polish Communist Party. This is a bibliography of Polish language works by Polish Communists divided into types of publications, regional, organizational, trial, prison, publications, and works by revolutionaries.)

    Jan B. de Weydenthal, The Communists of Poland: An Historical Outline, (Revised ed., Stanford, CA, 1986).

    (Weydenthal, a political scientist b. in Poland, worked for many years in the Polish section of Radio Free Europe, Munich).

    (vi) On Fascism in interwar Poland, see chapters by:

    Henryk Wereszycki and Piotr S. Wandycz, in: Peter Sugar, ed., NATIVE FASCISM IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES, 1918-1945 (Santa Barbara, CA, 1971) ,pp. 83-100.

    (H. Wereszycki, 1898-1990, an eminent Polish historian, fought in the Pilsudski Legions and the Polish- Soviet War, also in the Polish-German War 1939, after which he was a prisoner in Germany. He was a specialist in 19th c. diplomatic history and also wrote a highly respected textbook on Polish political history, 1864-1918. It was judged as contrary to the communist party line, so could not be published until after the "Polish October" of 1956. Later, he taught at the University of Wroclaw, and received an Alfred Jurzykowski Foundation award for History, 1969.)

    (vii) On Interwar Polish economic history, see:

    Zbigniew Landau and Jerzy Tomaszewski, The Polish Economy in the Twentieth Century, trans. by Wojciech Roszkowski, (New York, 1985), ch. 2.

    (Z. Landau, b. Poland, 1931, is a respected economic historian; J. Tomaszewski, b. Poland, 1930, has published widely on various historical topics concerning interwar Poland. This is a good, short survey. On Roszkowski, see below.).

    Z. Landau, "Review of Works on the Economic History of the Second Republic published in the Years 1962-1971," Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 28, 1973, pp. [137] 167.

    (The ACP is published in English. This is a very useful overview.)

    Wojciech Roszkowski, Landowners in Poland, 1918-1939, (East. Eur. Monographs, 299, Boulder CO, and New York, 1991).

    (Roszkowski is a Polish historian of modern Poland who held the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. 2000-03. This is an excellent study. The chair is now held by Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Institute of World Politics, Washington, D.C..)

    Daniel Stone, "The Big Business Lobby in Poland in the 1920s, "Canadian Slavonic Papers, vol. XXXII, no. 1, 1990, pp. 41-58.

    (D. Stone is a specialist on modern Polish history; he then taught at the University of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.)

    J. Taylor, The Economic Development of Poland, 1919-1950, Westport, CT, 1952.

    (This is asomewhat outdated but still very useful by a Polish economist.)

    Ferdynand Zweig, Poland Between Two Wars. A Critical Study of Social and Economic Changes, London, 1944.

    (F. Zweig, b. Poland 1896, published many works on economic, also social life, e. g. Women's Life and Labour, London, 1952.

    (viii) Interwar Polish Army, Navy, Air Force

    Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski, "The Military Elite of the Polish Second Republic, 1918- 1945: A Historiographical Review," War and Society, vol. 14, no. 2, October 1996, University of New South Wales, pp. 49-81.

    (This is a solid contribution to the subject. Biskupski is a Polish-American historian of modern Poland, who taught for many years at St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NY. Since fall 2003, he has held the chair of Polish and Polish-American History at the Central State Connecticut University, New Britain, CT.)

    Same, "A Prosopographical Analysis of the Polish Naval Elite, 1918-1945," The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, vol. 12, no. 1, London, 1999, pp. 166-179.

    (The author is too harsh on the Polish government for not spending much money on the navy; after all, the Polish coastline was only 160 kilometers long while Poland's land frontiers ran into thousands of kilometers. Even so, the minuscule Polish navy, evacuated to Britain in Sept.1939, gave a very good account of itself in World War II.)

    Jerzy B. Cynk, Polish Aircraft 1893-1939, (London, 1971.)

    (J. b. Cynk, b. Warsaw, 1925, joined the Polish Home Army in German-occupied Poland, was arrested and imprisoned for two years, including over a year in Auschwitz. He settled in the U.K. after the war and devoted all his spare time to research on Polish Aviation. This is a detailed account of the subject by an expert with many illustrations, drawings, and photographs.)

    Same, History of the Polish Air Force 1918-1968, (Reading, Berks, 1972), ch. 1-3..

    (The author rejects economic factors as an explanation for the poor state of the Polish air force in 1939, blaming Polish military leaders for not moving beyond the era of the Polish-Russian War of 1920, p. 99. However, Poland's underdeveloped industrial infrastructure and lack of adequate foreign investment in its armament industry were the key factors in Polish airforce weakness and general lack of mechanized land forces in 1939.)

    Michael Alfred Peszke, Poland's Navy, 1918-1945, (New York, 1999).

    (M. A. Peszke, b. Poland, 1932, is a psychiatrist by profession and a historian by avocation. He has published on psychiatry and Polish military history. This is an excellent study.)

    (ix) Very little is available to date in English on Interwar Polish educational, family, social and urban life, but see:

    Feliks Gross, THE POLISH WORKER. A STUDY OF A SOCIAL STRATUM, (New York, 1945).

    ( F. Gross, b. and educated in Poland, 1906, died New York, 2006, was a sociologist; a member of the prewar Polish Socialist Party, and taught for many years at New York University. He was a long-time President of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, resigning in 1999.)

    Nathan D. Wood, Becoming Metropolitan. Urban Selfhood and the Making of Modern Cracow, DeKalb, Ill., 2010.

    (A fascinating account of urban growth and identity, based mainly on the city's press in the period from about. 1890 to 1920. Wood is Asst. Prof. of History at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. See also his article "Urban Self-Identification in East Central Europe before the Great War," East Central Europe, 2006, v. 33, pts I-II, 11-31, also online.)

    Jan Slomka, trans. ed., William J. Rose, FROM SERFDOM TO SELF- GOVERNMENT; Memoirs of a Polish Village Mayor, 1842-1927, (London, 1941.)

    (Gives valuable and interesting insights into the life and views of Polish peasants over a long period of time, including Poland's transition from foreign rule to independence. W. J. Rose, a Canadian, was a historian of modern Poland; for a biographical note, see Poland, 4 B above.

    See also Keely Stauter-Halsted, Nation in the Village. The Genesis of Peasant National Identity in Austrian Poland, 1848-1914, Ithaca, 2001.)

    Seweryn Turosienski, Poland's Institutions of Higher Education, Bulletin 1936, no. 24, (U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Education, Washington, D. C. , 1937.)

    (A contemporary study.)

    Edward D. Wynot, Jr. Warsaw Between Two World Wars: Profile of the Capital City in a Developing Land, 1918-1939, (East Eur. Monographs, 129, New York, 1983).

    (E. D. Wynot Jr. ,b. New York, 1943, is a Polish-American historian who has published works on modern Poland and Eastern Europe; he then taught at Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.)

    See also papers in

    Timothy Wiles, ed., POLAND BETWEEN THE WARS, (Mimeo,Bloomington, IN, 1989), Section. II. Social Groups: Mainstream and Minority, pp. 109-148.

    (Papers by experts on interwar Poland; T. Wiles, d. 2003, was then director of the Center for Polish Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.)

    See also:

    Acta Poloniae Historica vol. 79, 1999
    (Has articles on children's upbringing and education in Poland from early modern times through 1956. APH is a high quality English-language historical journal edited by the Polish historian Maria Bogucka and published by the History Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.)

    (x) Interwar Polish Foreign Policy:

    Anna M. Cienciala, Poland the Western Powers, 1938-1939. A Study in the Interdependence of Eastern and Western Europe, London, Toronto, 1968.

    (Revised Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1962, based mainly on Polish archival sources available in The Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum, London, as well as western diplomatic documents published by the late 1950s. It is scheduled for digitization at the University of Kansas, 2011. Cienciala, b. Free City of Danzig/Gdansk, now in Poland, Prof. Em. of History at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, is a historian of European International Relations 1914-45 with focus on Poland. For her selected Eng. see University of Kansas, under Dept. of History, Retired Faculty .)

    Same, "Polish Foreign Policy, 1926-1939; 'Equilibrium,' Stereotype and Reality," Polish Review, vol. XX, no. 1, 1975, pp. 42-58.

    same, with Titus Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno. Keys to Polish Foreign Policy 1919-1925, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 1984.

    (Based on a mss. by former Polish govt. official and historian, with additions of new material and two, new final chapters by Cienciala; scheduled for digitization, University of Kansas, 2011.).

    Roman Debicki, Foreign Policy of Poland 1919-1939. From the Rebirth of the Polish Republic to World War II, (New York, 1962).

    (Kazimierz Roman Debicki, 1896-1980, was a Polish diplomat; this is a useful, basic, survey.)

    See also:

    Thaddeus V. Gromada, ed. Essays on Poland's Foreign Policy, 1918- 1939, (New York, 1970).

    (T. Gromada, b. 1929, is a Polish-American historian, Professor Em. Jersey State College; long-time Secretary General, later Exec. Director, also President of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, New York, 2009-11.. This is a set of useful essays including: the Treaty of Riga, 1921, the Weimar Republic and the German-Polish border, and the impact on the Franco-Polish alliance of the Remilitarization of the Rhineland; first published in the Polish Review, fall 1969. The table of contents omits an article by Cienciala, which is in the book.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, Polish Diplomacy: Aims and Achievements, 1919-1945, London, 1988.

    (A succinct overview by a master diplomatic historian;.aee his books on Polish- French relations below.)

    (xi) British attitudes and policy toward interwar Poland:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "Wilsonian East Central Europe: The British View with Reference to Poland," in: John S. Micgiel, ed., Wilsonian East Central Europe. Current Perspectives, New York, 1995, pp. 81-112

    (See also works by A.M.Cienciala in section on Free City of Danzig in Polish-German Relations, and section on Appeasement below. John S. Micgiel, (b. 1953), a Polish-American political scientist is the Director of the Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University, New York,since 1994. He has published and edited works on modern Polish history and political science.)

    Anna M. Cienciala and Titus Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno: Keys to Polish Foreign Policy, 1919-1925, Lawrence, KS., 1984.

    (British policy is discussed on every aspect of Polish frontiers and security problems in 1919-25.)

    Patricia A., Gajda, Postcript to Victory: British Policy and the German-Polish Borderlands, 1919-1925, Washington, 1982.

    (V. good on British F.O. views, which influenced the author. Gajda (b. 1941), was then Professor of History, University of Texas at Tyler, TX., and has also published on the history of Texas.)

    (xii) Interwar Franco-Polish relations:

    Piotr S. Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies. French-Polish-Czechoslovak Relations, 1919-1925, (Minneapolis, MN, 1962, reprint, Westport, CT, 1974.)

    same: The Twilight of French Eastern Alliances, 1926-36. French-Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from Locarno to the Remilitarization of the Rhineland, (Princeton, N. J., 1988.)

    (Piotr S. Wandycz, b. Poland, 1923, educated in France and England, Prof. Em. Yale University, is the pre-eminent American historian of Franco-Czechoslovak-Polish relations and interwar Polish foreign policy. These two books are the best studies of the subject; each received the Am. Hist. Assoc. George Louis Beer award. He is also the author of an excellent survey:The price of freedom : a history of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the present,London, New York, 1992, 2003.)

    (xiii) Interwar Polish-German relations:

    (a) from the Middle Ages to 1939, see:

    Jerzy Krasuski, "The Key Points of Polish-German Relations up to 1939," Polish Western Affairs, Poznan, 1992, no. 2., pp. 291-304.

    (Jerzy Krasuski, b. Poland 1930, has published several works on German history and Polish-German relations; he was then professor of History at the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.)

    There is, so far, no satisfactory English language study of these relations for the whole interwar period, but see:

    W. W. Kulski, Germany and Poland: From War to Peaceful Relations (Syracuse NY, 1976.)

    (Kulski was a legal expert in the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs; after World War II, professor of Political Science, U. S. The book covers the interwar years, World War II, and after.)

    Harald von Riekhoff, German-Polish Relations, 1918-1933 (Baltimore and London, 1971).

    (H. von Riekhoff, b.1937, of Baltic-German descent, then taught at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. This is a detailed, balanced study of these relations in the pre-Nazi period.)

    See also: Michael Burleigh, Germany Turns Eastwards. A Study of the Ostforschung in the Third Reich, Cambridge, UK, 1988. M. Burleigh, b. London, 1955, is a specialist in modern German history. He was then lecturer in International History, London School of Economics, and director of the BW TV Company, London. This book gives a good account of government- financed studies in Nazi Germany on Poland and German minorities in E. Europe.)

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Significance of the Declaration of Non-Aggression of January 26, 1934, in Polish-German and International Relations," East European Quarterly, vol. I, no. 1, 1967 pp. 1-30.

    (The author takes issue with the negative stereotype view of Polish interwar policy; see also works by same in section on Appeasement below.)

    Karol Fiedor, Janusz Sobczak and Wojciech Wrzesinski, "Image of the Poles in Germany and of the Germans in Poland in Inter-War Years and its Role in Shaping the Relations Between the Two States," Polish Western Affairs, vol. 19, no. 2 Poznan, 1978, pp. 203-228.

    (Karl Fiedor was a German historian; the late J. Sobczak worked at the Institute of Western Affairs, Poznan and authored books on Weimar and Nazi German anti-Polish propaganda; W.Wrzesinski, b.1934, then Professor of History, University of Wroclaw, has published on Poles in Warmia and Mazury, also on Polish political thought and German stereotypes of the Pole.)

    (xiv) The Danzig question in interwar Polish-German and international relations:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "German Propaganda for the Revision of the Polish-German Frontier in Danzig and the Corridor; Its Effects on British Opinion and the British Foreign Policy-Making Elite in the Years 1919-1933, "ANTEMURALE, v. XX, Rome, 1976 (pp. 77-129.

    (The author shows how German propaganda fitted in with the general British view of the need to revise the Polish-German frontier, esp. the return of Danzig and the Polish Corridor to Germany. Antemurale [Bulwark], was edited and published by the Polish Historical Institute, Rome, which was established there, 1945, by Monseignor Walerian Meysztowicz, 1893-1982, a Polish medievalist and former diplomat, together with Karolina Lanckoronska (1898-2002), a Polish art historian who had survived imprisonment in the German concentration camp at Ravesnbruck, author of memoirs on her resistance to the Germans and her stay in the camp. These two edittors also published documents on Polish history culled from European archives in: Elementa ad Fontium Editiones. She established the Lanckoronski Foundation, 1967, to support Polish research and scholarly publications first in the West, and after 1989, also in Poland. For her translated memoirs, see: Those Who Transgress Against US, trrans. Noel Clark, London, 2005.)

    Christoph M. Kimmich, The Free City in German Foreign Policy, 1919- 1934 (New Haven and London, 1968).

    (Chr. M. Kimmich,(b. Germany, 1939, studied in U. S. and UK. He co-edited the German edition of Documents on German Foreign Policy, ser. B., vols. I, II. 1966, 1967; he also published Germany and the League of Nations (1976) and was an administrator at Brooklyn College, N. Y. This is an excellent study based on German documents.)

    Herbert S. Levine. Hitler's Free City (Chicago, 1971).

    .(Herbert S. Levine, b. New York City, 1938, has also co-edited works on the Soviet economy. He then taught in the Dept. of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. This is an excellent work based mostly on German- lang. documents, also some in the Polish state archives, Gdansk, where his access was, however, restricted..)

    Carl Tighe, Gdansk. National Identity in the Polish-German Borderlands ( London and Concord, CT, 1990).

    (By a German historian; this is a useful but uneven and occasionally opinionated work )

    Roman Wapinski, "Gdansk in Polish Political Mythology; the Formation of Political Consciousness," Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 81, 2000, pp. 29-36.

    (R. Wapinski, a specialist in Polish interwar political history, and biographer of General W. Sikorski, taught at Gdansk University. This paper was read at the 14th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Oslo, 2000.)

    (xv) Interwar Polish-Soviet relations:

    Bohdan B. Budurowycz, Polish-Soviet Relations 1932-1939 (New York, 1963) .

    (B. B. Budurowycz, b. of Ukrainian parents, Poland, 1921, worked at the University of Toronto as Slavic Bibliographer, then Professor of Slavic Studies, 1977. The book, a revised version of his Ph. D. dissertation for Columbia University, New York City, fails to consider Polish perceptions and concerns; it is now largely outdated.)

    Josef Korbel, Poland Between East and West. Soviet and German Diplomacy towards Poland, 1919-1933 (Princeton, N. J. 1963).

    (J. Korbel, b. Czechoslovakia 1909, d. U. S. 1977, father of Madeline Albright, was a Czechoslovak diplomat until 1948, then came to U. S, taught at the University of Colorado and published several books, mainly on Czechoslovakia. The same criticism applies to this book as to that by B. Budurowycz above.)

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 22, 1939: When did Stalin Decide to Align with Hitler, and was Poland the Culprit?" in: M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe (Rochester University Press, 2003), pp. 147-226.

    (Using British, French, German, Polish and Russian sources, the author criticizes the view that Polish refusal of Soviet military entry into Poland to fight the Germans was the decisive factor in Stalin's decision to align with Hitler instead of Britain and France. The book was dedicated to Prof. Piotr S. Wandycz on his 80th birthday.)

    Wojciech Materski, "The Second Polish Republic in Soviet Foreign Policy, 1919-1939," trans. by Anna M. Cienciala,The Polish Review, vol.45, no. 3, 2000, pp. 331-345.

    (W. Materski is the leading, contemporary Polish historian of Polish-Soviet relations 1919-45. He has published a book on this period, also a book on Polish foreign policy in 1944-48, and many articles, also co-edited 4 vols. of Russian documents on the Katyn massacre of 1940 with Natalia S. Lebedeva of the Russian Academy of Sciences [see Poland in WW II]. He is the head of the Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.)

    (xvi) Interwar Polish-U. S. relations:

    George J. Lerski, ed., with foreword by Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Herbert Hoover and Poland. A Documentary Study of a Friendship, Stanford, CA, 1977

    (Documents and correspondence on the very important, Hoover-organized relief work in Poland at the end of World War I, which saved the lives of tens of thousands of children.. On Lerski, see Part I, Historical Dictionary of Poland.)

    Neal Pease, Poland, the United States and the Stabilization of Europe, 1919-1933 (Oxford, 1986.)

    (An excellent study of U. S. loans to and investments in Poland by a contemporary American historian of Poland, b. 1951. He obtained his M.A. at the University of Kansas, major adviser A. M. Cienciala, and his Ph.D. at Yale University under Piotr S. Wandycz. He is a Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI., currently (2011) chair of the History Dept., and until 2011 book review editor of the Polish Review.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland (Cambridge, Mass., 1980), ch. 3, 4.

    (Excellent survey by the pre-eminent American historian of Poland, Professor Emeritus Yale University.)

    (xvii) National minorities in interwar Poland:

    Stephen Horak, Poland and her National Minorities, 1919-1939: A Case Study (New York, 1961)

    (The late S. Horak, a scholar of Czech origin, was for many years the Slavic librarian at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.. The book has very useful information and texts, but the criticism of Polish minority policies lacks consideration of Polish views of national interest and security requirements.)

    Same, East European National Minorities, 1919-1980: A Handbook, Littleton,Co, 1985.

    For a Polish point of view, see:

    Marian M. Drozdowski, "National Minorities in Poland, 1918-1939, "Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 22 (1970), pp. 226-251.

    ( M. M. Drozdowski, b. Poland, 1932, is the author of works on many aspects of interwar Polish history, also Polish-French and Polish-American relations; he was then a faculty member of the Historical Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.)

    S. I. Paprocki, Minority Affairs in Poland: An Informatory Outline (Warsaw, 1935).

    (A good, contemporary, interwar Polish study by an expert.)

    Gabriele Simoncini, "The Polyethnic State: National Minorities in Interbellum Poland," Nationalities Papers, Special Issue, Supplement 1, 1994.

    In 1939 Poland, ethnic Poles consittuted 68-69% and minorities 31-32% of the population. Thus, in comparison with Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, interwar Poland can be considered a national rather than a polyethnic state. Simoncini, a specialist in ethnic studies for the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia, was then teaching in the History Dept. of Pace University, Pleasantville, NY.)

    Timothy Wiles, ed., Poland Between the Wars, Bloomington, IN, 1989; Section B. "Minority Identity and Critical Consciousness, " pp. 149-208.

    (Typed conference papers by several authors; Edward Wynot argues for the influence of minorities on Polish foreign policy, but while this policy was influenced by them to some extent, they were not a major factor,. cf. Cienciala books and articles on interwar Polish foreign policy. The late Timothy Wiles was then director of the Center for Polish Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.)

    (xviii) The German minority in interwar Poland:

    Richard Blanke, "The German Minority in Interwar Poland and German Foreign Policy; Some Reconsiderations," Journal of Contemporary History, 25, Jan. 1990, pp. 87-102.

    same: Orphans of Versailles: The Germans in Western Poland, 1918- 1939 (Lexington, Ky., 1993).

    same, Polish-Speaking Germans? Language and National Identity among the Masurians since 1871 (Cologne, 2001).

    (on the Masurians of former East Prussia).

    [The author, an American historian of German descent teaching at the University of Maine, is sympathetic to German minority grievances. He remphasisezes the importance of minority problems as a factor in the German attack on Poland and the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, while Gerhard L.Weinberg, in his books on Nazi foreign policy,stresses Hitler's pursuit of "Lebensraum" = room to live,.)

    Przemyslaw Hauser, "The German Minority in Poland in the Years 1918-1939. (Reflection on the State of Research and Interpretation, Proposals for Further Research), Polish Western Affairs, vol. 32, no. 2, Poznan, 1991, pp. 13- 38.

    (Hauser, a specialist on Polish-German relations, was then professor of history at the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.)

    Georges S. Kaeckenbeck, International Experiment in Upper Silesia: A Study in the Working of the Upper Silesian Settlement, 1922-37, (London, Oxford, 1942.)

    (Excellent, detailed account by the former President of the Arbitral Tribunal of Upper Silesia.)

    Ian F. Morrow and L. M. Sieveking, Peace Settlement in the German-Polish Borderlands: A Study of Conditions Today in the Pre-War Prussian Provinces of East and West Prussia (London, Oxford, 1936).

    (This is a good study of the situation as seen from Britain at a time of fairly good Polish-German relations. It was prepared for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.)

    Edward D. Wynot, Jr., "The Case of German Schools in Polish Upper Silesia," Polish Review, vol. !9, no. 2 1974, pp. 47-69, and same:

    "Polish Germans, 1919-1939; National Minority in a Multinational State," Polish Review, vol. 17, no. 1 1972,(pp. 23-64.

    (Wynot is a Polish-American historian of Poland; he was then teaching at the University of Florida, Tallahassee,FLA.)

    (xix) The Jews in Interwar Poland:

    Chimen Abramsky et al. eds., The Jews in Poland (Oxford, 1986)

    (Conference papers by prominent historians; the book covers medieval and modern history; see relevant chapters.)

    Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Image Before My Eyes. A Photographic History of Jewish Life in Poland Before the Holocaust (New York, 1977).

    (Fascinating photos with historical commentary. The late L. Dobroszycki was a historian of 20th c. Poland and Polish Jewry.)

    Carole Fink, Defending the Rights of Others: the Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938 (Cambridge U.K. and New York, 2004).

    (West European, mainly British, Jewish leaders managed to work out and include Minorities Treaties in the peace settlements of 1919-20 to be signed by the new East European states. The treaties were meant to safeguard the civic rights not only the Jews, but all minorities in these states. The new states' constitutions also guaranteed civic rights to minorities which were,however, progressively violated, especially in the later1930s, as were the rights of all who openly opposed the governments of these states..)

    Celia S. Heller, On the Edge of Destruction. The Jews of Poland between the Two World Wars (New York, 1977).

    (C. S. Heller, b. in Poland, is a sociologist then teaching at Hunter College, New York City. She presents a very negative picture of Jewish conditions in Poland and condemns Polish treatment of Jews. Her view that prewar Polish anti-semitism was a decisive factor in the indifference of of Poles toward Jewish suffering during the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland is disputed by Polish historians who see German terror in occupied Poland as the main factor for the lack of significant Polish help.See also work by Paulson below.)

    Aleksander Hertz, The Jews in Polish Culture (Evanston, Ill., 1988).

    (The late A. Hertz, born in Poland, later in U. S. was a specialist on the subject; this is an excellent study).

    Bernard K. Johnpoll, The Politics of Futility. The General Jewish Workers' Bund of Poland, 1917-1933 (Ithaca, N. Y., 1967.)

    (B. K. Johnpoll, b. New York City, 1918, was then Professor of Political Science, SUNY at Albany; the book deals with Jewish Socialists.)

    Isaac Lewin, The Jewish Community in Poland. Historical Essays (New York, 1985); ch. XIV, XV on Agudat Israel. .

    Same and N. Gelber, A History of Polish Jewry During the Revival of Poland (New York, 1990).

    (On I. Lewin and N. Gelber, see section on Rebirth of Poland, above; this book is generally favorable to the Poles.)

    Joseph Marcus, Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919- 1939 ( Hague, 1983).

    (A good survey.)

    Sean Martin, Jewish Life in Cracow, 1918-1939 (Portland, OR, 2004).

    (Excellent work showing Jewish life, schools, and politics; see review by Nancy Sinkoff, Slavic Review, vol. 65 no. 2, summer 2006, pp. 362-363.)

    Ezra Mendelsohn, Zionism in Poland. The Formative Years, 1915-1926 (New Haven, London, 1981).

    (E. Mendelsohn, b. New York City, 1940, is a historian of Zionism and the Jews in East Central Europe; he lives in Jerusalem).

    John Micgiel, Robert Scott and H. B. Segel, eds., Poles and Jews: Myth and Reality in the Historical Context, Proceedings of a Conference, Institute on East Central Europe, (Columbia University, New York), March 6-10, 1983 (mimeographed).

    (See sections on Interwar Poland and World War II; there is also much interesting material on Poles and Jews in Language and Literature.)

    Neal Pease, "This Troublesome Question": The United States and the "Polish Pogroms" of 1918-1919, in: M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe, (University of Rochester Press, 2003), pp. 58-79.

    (A balanced account of the issue and of the Morgenthau report. Pease is a historian of Poland who teaches at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)

    Antony Polonsky, Ezra Mendelsohn and Jerzy Tomaszewski, eds., Jews in Independent Poland 1918-1939, POLIN Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 8 (London, Washington, 1994).

    (Edited by U. S., Israeli and Polish scholars, the book contains valuable chapters and review essays written by experts on all aspects of Jewish life in interwar Poland. A. Polonsky, b. 1940, in S. Africa to Polish-Jewish parents, educated in UK, is an eminent historian of Polish Jewry. He is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Wash. D.C.)

    A. Polonsky, ed., The Jewish Community in Warsaw, POLIN, vol. 3. 1988.

    same, ed., Polish Perception of Jews and the Jewish Perception of Poles Through the Centuries From the Middle Ages to the Present, POLIN vol. 4, 1989.

    same, ed., Zionism in Poland, Polish Jews in Germany, and Jewish Art and Architecture in Poland, POLIN vol. 5, 1990.

    same, ed., The Role of the Jews in the Development of Lodz, POLIN, vol. 6, 1991.

    same, The Jews in Poland and Russia. v. 1: 1350-1881; Littman, 2009; v. 2: 1881-1914, Littman, 2010.

    (Magisterial histories including the latest reseach.)

    Alexander Victor Prusin, Nationalizing a Borderland. War, Ethnicty, and Anti-Jewish Violence in East Galicia, 1914-1920, Judaci Studies Series, University of Alabama Press, 2005.

    (Emphasizes violence against Jews in an extremely violent period for all inhabitants of the region. Violent, anti-Jewish pogroms were also conducted by Red Army and White Armies troops on Russian territory during the Russian Civil War, 1918-23.)

    Norman Salsitz, A Jewish Boyhood in Poland. Remembering Kolbuszowa, as told to Richard Skalnik (Syracuse, N. Y., 1992.)

    (Depicts the life, problems, and disputes of a small-town Jewish family in interwar Polish Galicia. Salsitz was a Zionist; he escaped from a German labor camp and served in the Polish army in World War II, then settled in U. S. Skalnik was then professor of history at the City of New York, CUNY. The book has some illustrations, family photos. Kolbuszowa was a small, mostly Jewish market town north-east of Tarnow, former E. Galicia. Its coat of arms, established 1785, showed a handshake between a crusader's cross at the top and a Jewish star of David at the bottom.)

    Jaff Schatz, The Generation. The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Communists in Poland, Berkeley (CA, 1992),

    (ch. 1 through 8. are based on the author's interviews with survivors conducted in 1981-90; valuable for interwar and postwar periods. Schatz was then Director of the Institute for Jewish Culture and was affiliated with the Sociology Dept., Lunds University, Sweden.)

    Marci Shore, Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation's Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968, New Haven, 2006.

    (A brilliant study of Polish Marxist writers, most of them Jewish.)

    Laurence Weinbaum, A Marriage of Convenience. The New Zionist Organization and the Polish Government, 1936-1939 (East Eur. Monographs, 369, New York, 1993).

    (Originally a Ph.D. diss. for Warsaw University, the work tells of the cooperation between the Polish govt. of the time and Zhabotinsky's [or Jabotinsky's] NZO, especially its military branch. Vladimir Zhabotinsky, 1880-1940, b. in Odessa, Russia, was a prominent Zionist who fought for a Jewish state in Palestine. The Polish govt. supported and gave secret military training to Zionists in the 1930s, in line with its suppport of Jewish immigration from Poland to Palestine; immigration opposed by the British. They held a League of Nations Mandate for Palestine and had to deal with the predominantly Arab population, which adamantly opposed Jewish immigration.)

    (xx) Polish-Ukrainian relations in interwar Poland

    Paul Robert Magocsi, A History of Ukraine (Toronto, 1996, 3rd ptg. Seattle, Wash., 1998), ch. 44. Ukrainian Lands in Interwar Poland, pp. 583-598.

    (A balanced survey of Ukrainians and Poles in E. Galicia at this time. Magocsi, author of an excellent historical atlas of East Central Europe. was then teaching at the University of, Toronto.)

    Peter J. Potichnyj, ed., Poland and the Ukraine. Past and Present, Edmonton, 1980 (Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies).

    (P. K. Potichnyj, b. Sov. Ukraine, 1930, educated in U. S., then taught Political Science at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., Canada, has published and edited books on Ukraine and USSR. This is a very good collection of essays by Polish and Ukrainian authors.)

    For background to interwar Ukrainian-Polish relations, see:

    John-Paul Himka, Religion and Nationality in Western Ukraine (Ithaca, Montreal, 1999).

    [Same, Socialism in Galicia. The Emergence of Polish Social Democracy and Ukrainian Radicalism (1860-1890), (Cambridge, Mass., 1983).

    (Himka, b. 1949, has published several books on Ukrainian history; he was then a professor of History at the University of Edmonton, Canada.)

    Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds., Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism in Austrian Galicia, Cambridge, Mass. 1982.

    F. E. Sysyn (b. Passaic, N. J., 1946) is a historian of Ukraine.

    Thaddeus M. Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, (Jefferson, NC, 1998)`.

    (Piotrowski, b. Poland, 1940, a Sociologist, then taught at the University of New Hampshire, Manchester, N. H. He.has useful comments and statistics on bilingual Polish-Ukrainian schools in interwar East Galicia, also Ukrainian nationalist organizations, their fascist dogmas, and the Polish "pacification" of East Galicia in September 1930. On WW II see ch. 7. Ukrainian Collaboration, pp. 177-198. He has also published a work on Ukrainian Integral Nationalism, and family memoirs on Ukrainian cleansing of Poles in Volhynia, as well as a book on the Soviet deportations of Poles from eastern Poland in 1940-41 and their fates. (On the above, see Poland in WW II).

    Stanislaw Skrzypek, The Problem of East Galicia (London, 1948).

    (Expresses the Polish view and claims to East Galicia during World War II. S. Skrzypek,b. Poland, 1911- d. U.S. (199?), Ph. D. Economics, Jan Kazimierz University, Lwow (Lviv), 1935; was a prisoner in USSR, 1939-43. He was an econ. analyst for Radio Free Europe, then USIA. In this book, he argued for the retention of E. Galicia in Poland; the book has useful statistics and maps.)

    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania and Belarus, 1569-1999 (New Haven and London, 2003).

    (See chapter 7on Ukrainians in interwar Poland. This book, which won the AHA George Louis Beer Prize in 2003, is a path-breaking study on the development of national consciousness by the peoples listed. In the Ukrainian case, it was the western Ukrainians, who emerged from the matrix of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, formed in 1569. Snyder, a Harvard Ph.D. teaches at Yale University. His latest book, Bloodlands. Europe between Hitler and Stalin, Basic Books, New York, 2010, is a path breaking study of the horrendous suffering of the peoples living in what was easternPoland, now western Ukraine and the rest of Ukraine , as well as Belarus and the Baltic States.)

    D. THE BALKAN STATES, 1918-1939

    (NOTE: for bibliographies and historical dictionaries on countries, see Section I, Reference Works).

    1. For an overview of Balkans states in 1918-39, see:

    Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans. Twentieth Century, vol. 2,( Cambridge, UK, 1983 and reprints), ch. 4-6, and see bibliography.

    Charles and Barbara Jelavich, eds., THE BALKANS IN TRANSITION. Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth century (University of California Press, 1963, reprint Archon Books, 1974).

    (The late Barbara Jelavich was, with her husband Charles J., the pre-eminent American historian of the modern Balkans. They taught for many years at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.)

    L. S. Stavrianos, The Balkans since 1453 ( New York, 1959).

    (By an outstanding American historian of the Balkans. Part VI. Age of War and Crisis, deals with the period from 1914 through the peace settlement of 1947, mostly by country, pp. 545-846.)

    Plamen S. Tzvetkov, A History of the Balkans. A Regional Overview from a Bulgarian Perspective, vol. 2, (San Francisco, 1993), ch. 2, Wars and Dictatorships, pp. 99-262.

    (This is a straight forward narrative from a Bulgarian point of view. No biogr. info. available on author, except that he wrote the work while at Georgetown University; he thanks Professor Andrzej Kaminski of that university for help in facilitating publication, see Acknowledgments.)

    See also: Bernd J. Fischer, ed., Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of Southeast Europe, (Central European Studes. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2007).

    (The books covers interwar and postwar history;, including a positive evaluation of Josip Broz Tito; reviewed by Gale Stokes, Slavic Review, Winter 2009, v.68, n.4, pp. 967-968.B.J. Fischer, a specialist in Balkan history, teaches at Indiana University, Purdue, IN. )


    2. Interwar Balkans by country:

    (ii) Interwar ALBANIA

    Vandeleur Robinson, Albania's Road to Freedom (London, 1941).

    (Critical, contemporary account of King Zog's Albania, 1929-39).

    Joseph Swire, Albania: The Rise of a Kingdom (1929, reprint New York 1971),.

    (Good,contemporary survey up to 1929).

    Miranda Vickers, A History of Albania (New York, 1996).

    Same,The Albanians. A Modern History (New York, 1999).

    (Both are excellent studies by a British historian of the country.)

    (ii) Interwar BULGARIA

    a. General

    R. J. Crampton, A Short History of Modern Bulgaria (Cambridge, UK, 1987).

    (By a British historian of Bulgaria. See ch. 2-3, and Suggestions for further reading.)

    Same, A Concise History of Bulgaria, (Cambridge, UK, 1997). Ch. 7 covers 1918-44.

    same, Bulgaria (Oxford, New York, 2007).

    (Check for later editions.)

    b. Interwar Bulgaria: Politics, Parties, and Rulers:

    John D. Bell, The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov (Stanford, CA, 1986).

    (J. D. Bell was an American historian of Bulgaria who taught at UMB; he died in Dec. 1998.)

    Same, Peasants in Power: Alexander Stamboliski and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, 1899-1923 (Princeton, 1977).

    (A classic.)

    Cyril D. Black, The Establishment of Constitutional Government in Bulgaria,(Oxford, London, Princeton1943), reprint New York, 1973

    (A classic study of late 19th century politics as the basis for same in the 20th c. by the American historian, C. D. Black, 1918-1989).

    Stephen Constant, Foxy Ferdinand, 1861-1948: Tsar of Bulgaria,(New York, 1980).

    (This book had mixed reviews.)

    Mari a.Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers: The Stancioff Family in Bulgarian History (Lanham Md, 2008).

    (About a family famous in Bulgarian diplomacy and politics, whose story ended in exile after WWII; favorable review in Slavic Review, Winter 2009, v. 68, n. 4, pp.966-967.)

    Stephanie Groueff, Crown of Thorns: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918-1943, (Lanham, Md., 1987).

    (Sympathetic to Boris III, a very popular monarch in his country. He is also honored for refusing to deport Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps from interewar Bulgaria, but he did not oppose their deportation from territories annexed by Bulgaria as an ally of Germany.)

    Charles A. Moser, Dimitrov of Bulgaria: A Political Biography of Dr. Georgi M. Dimitrov, (Ottawa, Ill., 1979).

    (Ch. A. Moser, b. Knoxville, TN., 1935, then taught at George Washington University, Washington, D. C., This Georgy M. Dimitrov, a prominent Agrarian politician. is not to be confused with his Communist namesake, also Georgy M.,Dimitrov, the long-time Secretary of the Comintern and briefly Premier of post-WWII Bulgaria.)

    Joseph Rotschild, The Communist Party of Bulgaria: Origins and Development, 1883-1936,( rev. ed., New York, 1972) .

    (V.. good on the whole period. J. Rotschchild, d. Dec. 1999, authored histories of E. Europe in the interwar and communist periods, also an outstanding work on Pilsudski's seizure of power in Poland, 1926.).

    Joseph Swire, Bulgarian Conspiracy, (London, 1939).

    (Good, contemporary coverage, sympathetic to the terrorist organization, IMRO = Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization).

    c On The interwar Bulgarian economy, see:

    Alexander Gerschenkron, "Some Aspects of Industrialization in Bulgaria, 1879-1939," in: same, ed., Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective, (New York, 1965).

    (A. Gerschenkron,(b. Russia, 1904, educated in Vienna, emigrated to U. S. in 1938, taught at several American universities and published many works on the Soviet economy. This book is a classic.)

    John R. Lampe, The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century, (New York, 1986).

    (By an American specialist,then teaching at the University of Maryland, College Park, MD.)

    Irwin T. Sanders, Balkan Village, (Lexington, Ky., 1949).

    (A classic.)

    d. Turks in interwar Bulgaria.

    Bilal N. Simsir, The Turks of Bulgaria, 1878-1985, (London, 1988).


    (iii) Interwar ROMANIA

    1. For a general survey see:

    Kurt W. Treptow, ed., A History of Romania, (3rd ed., Center for Romanian Studies, Iasi, 1997),. ch. IV pp. 364-392 covers World War I and the emergence of a greater Romania; ch. V. covers the 20th century from the end of 1918 to 1996, of which pp. 393- 466 cover the inter war period. This is a popular history, sympathetic to Romania, with many illustrations, chronology, list of rulers, and bibliography.)

    [Treptow is an American historian of Romania.]

    2. For more detailed histories of interwar Romania, see:

    Keith Hitchins, Rumania 1866-1947, (Oxford, 1994).

    (By the leading American historian of Romania; ch. 7-10 cover the interwar period; the book has a v. useful Bibliographical Essay. Hitchins, a Harvard Ph. D. 1964. He teaches at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.)

    Irina Livezeanu, Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: regionalism, nation building and ethnic struggle 1918-1930, (Ithaca, 1995).

    (I. Livezeanu, a Romanian- born American historian of Romania, teaches at the University of Pittsburgh. This book deals with Romanian 20th nationalism, ethnic relations, politics, government and intellectual life, in some cases up to 1944.)

    3. On Political-agrarian-economic problems in interwar Romania see:

    David Mitrany, The Land and the Peasant in Rumania: The War and Agrarian Reform, 1917-1921, (New Have, CT., 1930, New York, 1968).

    (D. Mitrany ,b. Romania, 1888, d. 1975, UK,, was educated in UK and authored many works on Romania; this is a classic.)

    Henry L. Roberts, Rumania: Politcal Problems of an Agrarian State, (1951, reprint, Hamden, CT, 1969).

    (H. L. Roberts, 1916-1972, was an American historian of Eastern Europe and international relations; this is a classic.)

    Katherine M. Verdery, Transylvanian Villagers: Three Centuries of Political, Economic and Ethnic Change, (Berkeley, CA, 1983).

    (K. M. Verdery, an American anthropologist, was then teaching at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, later at CUNY; this is an economic-social-anthropological study.)

    4. On the Economy of interwar Romania, see:

    Maurice Pearton, Oil and the Romanian State,( Oxford, 1971).

    David Turnock, The Romanian Economy in the Twentieth Century, (New York, 1986).

    D. Turnock, b. UK, 1938, has published several books on Romania and Eastern Europe; he then taught in the Dept. of Geography, University of Leicester, UK.)

    5. On Social change in interwar Romania, see:

    Kenneth Jowitt, ed., Social Change in Romania, 1860-1940: A Debate on Development in a European Nation, (Berkeley, CA, 1978).

    (K. Jowitt is a British scholar. He has published several books on Russia.)

    6. On Communism in interwar Romania, see:

    Robert R. King, History of the Romanian Communist Party, Stanford, (CA, 1980).

    (R. R. King, b. Rock Springs, Wyo., 1942, has worked for Radio Free Europe, also published and edited books on Romania and E. Europe.)

    7. On Fascism in interwar Romania, see

    chapters by E. Turczynski and S. Fischer-Galati in: Peter F. Sugar, ed., NATIVE FASCISM IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES, 1918-1945 ( Santa Barbara, CA, 1971, (pp. 101-122).

    Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, The Green Shirts and Others. A History of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania, (Stanford, CA, 1970)

    (For Nagy-Talavera, see under Hungary, above).

    Eugen Weber, "Romania," in: Hans Rogger and Eugen Weber, eds., THE EUROPEAN RIGHT, (Berkeley, CA, 1965), pp. 501-574..

    (Eugen Weber, b. Bucharest, 1925,, was educated in Geneva and Cambridge, UK; he has authored many books on European history and taught for many years at the University of California, L. A.)

    8. On Romanian interwar foreign policy, see:

    Walter M. Bacon, Jr. ed., Behind Closed Doors. Secret Papers on the Failure of Romanian-Soviet Negotiations, 1931-1932, (Stanford, CA, 1979).

    (Bacon then taught in the Dept. of Political Science, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NEB. This is a detailed study based on Romanian archival sources made accessibe to the author by the Romanian government).

    Dov B. Lungu, Romania and the Great Powers, 1933-1940, (Durham, N.C. 1989).

    (A good survey based on archival sources; see. Cienciala review, Journal of Modern European History, v. 63, 1991, no. 4, p. 824-26.)

    Paul D. Quinlan, Clash over Romania: British and American Policies toward Romania 1938-1947, (Oakland, CA, 1977).

    (Quinlan was then assoc. prof. history, Providence College, R. I. )

    (iv) Interwar YUGOSLAVIA

    1. For surveys, see:

    Stephen Clissold, ed., A Short History of Yugoslavia; From Early Times to 1966, (Cambridge, UK, 1966).

    (S. Clissold, 1913-1982, was an English historian who wrote on Yugoslavia, Spain, and Latin America.)

    Frederick Barnard Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, (Cambridge, UK, 1985).

    (Singleton, an English historian, also wrote on Finland.)

    2. Much useful information on Interwar Yugoslavia's constitutional development, culture, education, religion, economic, social conditions, also statistics, is to be found in:

    Robert J. Kerner, ed., YUGOSLAVIA, (Berkeley, 1949)

    (Good chapters on various aspects of Yugoslavia by contemporary specialists.On Kerner, 1887-1956, see biogr. inform. on a similar book he edited on Poland, above.)

    3. On Interwar Yugoslav Politics, Parties, Leaders, Rulers, see:

    Alex N. Dragnich, Serbia, Nikola Pasic, and Yugoslavia, (New Brunswick, N. J., 1974).

    (Dragnich, was then Professor Emeritus of Vanderbilt University. Pasic 1845-1926, was the leading Serb politician in 1875-1926.)

    same, The First Yugoslavia's Search for a Viable Political System, (Stanford, CA, 1983).

    (The author denies the Serb drive for hegemony in interwar Yugoslavia (?); see also his 2004 book: Serbia Through the Ages, and several books on Yugoslavia.)

    Stephen Graham, Alexander of Yugoslavia: Strong Man of the Balkans, (London, 1938).

    (Slim scholarship, but useful for contemporary views. Cf. Bernd J. Fischer ed.,Balkan Strongmen, 2007.)

    Vladko Macek, In The Struggle for Freedom, (University Park, Pa, 1968).

    (Memoirs of V. Macek, 1879-1964, a leading Croatian politician of the interwar period)

    R. W. Seton-Watson and the Yugoslavs: Correspondence, 1906-1941, vol. 2, 1918-1941, edited by Hugh Seton-Watson et al., (Zagreb, 1976).

    (R.W. Seton-Watson was the most famous British historian of Eastern Europe. The letters are arranged by years; the largest number are for the years 1919 and 1932. Hugh Seton-Watson was a historian of Russia and East Centeral Europe.)

    4. Communists in interwar Yugoslavia,

    Aleksa Djilas, The Contested Country. Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-1953, (Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

    (Al. Djilas, b. Belgrade, 1953, studied in Yugoslavia, UK, and Austria, and in 1990 was at the Russian Research Center, Harvard University. The book focuses on the changing Yugoslav Communist party policy toward unity and separatism in Yugoslavia, and thus on the relations between Serbs and Croats.)

    Milovan Djilas, Land Without Justice, (New York, 1958).

    (M. Djilas, b. Podbisce. Montenegro, 1911, d. 1995, was a prominent Yugoslav Communist leader, later famous dissident. This is the first volume of his autobiography dealing with his childhood years in an isolated Montenegrin village.)

    same: Memoir of a Revolutionary, 2 vols (New York, 1973).

    (M. continues the autobiography into his student years in the 1930's; valuable information on Yug. Communist Party at this time.)

    5. On Yugoslav Fascists, see

    : D. Djordjevic and I. Avakumovic, in: Peter F. Sugar, ed., NATIVE FASCISM IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES, 1918-1945, (Santa Barbara, CA, 1971), pp. 125-144.

    (On Djordjevic, see Pt. I., the book he edited on Balkan revolutions).


    6. On the Interwar Yugoslav economy, see:

    Jozo Tomasevich, Peasants, Politics, and Economic Change in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, (Stanford, CA, 1955).

    (A classic study. J.T. is the author of several books on Yugoslavia)

    7. On Interwar Yugoslavia's Foreign Policy, see:

    J. B. Hoptner, Yugoslavia in Crisis, 1939-41, (New York, 1962, 1963).

    (Old but still useful.)

    Frank C. Littlefield, GERMANY AND YUGOSLAVIA 1933-1941. The German Conquest of Yugoslavia, East Eur. Monographs no. 244, (Boulder Co., and New York, 1988).

    (A useful study.)

    8. On Intewar Yugoslavia's Nationalities, see:

    Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics, (Ithaca and London, 1984 and 1988).

    (By an American historian, prof of history at Yale University; best study of topic, mandatory reading to understand the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the wars of 1990-95.)

    James J. Sadkovich, Italian Support for Croatian Separatism, 1927- 1937, (New York, 1987).

    (Valuable study on a little known topic.)


    (v) Interwar GREECE

    [NOTE: Greece is more a Mediterranean than a Balkan country, so it is covered only marginally in this bibliography for the interwar period].

    1. For a general overview of Greek history, see:

    Richard Clogg, A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge, (UK, 1991).

    (Clogg is a British historian of modern Greece.)

    2. The Greek-Turkish War, 1920-2

    S. Victor Papacoma, With Venizolos A Legacy, (Gulf Breeze, FL, 1978).

    (Favorable to Eleutherios Venizelos, 1864-1936, b. in Crete, controversial Greek statesman active in Greek political life 1887-1936. He brought Greece into World War I on the Entente side, causing the abdication of King Constantine, 1917 and establishment of a republic; secured British support for a disastrous war with Turkey to gain western Anatolia, which ended with the expulsion of the Greek population from Turkey and of Turks from Greece).

    A. E. Montgomery, "Lloyd George and the Greek Question," in: A. J. P. Taylor, ed., Lloyd George. Twelve Essays, (New York, 1971), pp. 257-286.

    (A. E. Montgomery makes good use of British Cabinet, Foreign Office, and Lloyd George papers. David Lloyd George, 1863-1945, a Welshman, was British Prime Minister 1916-22; encouraged Venizelos to send troops into Anatolia after WW I. A. J. P. Taylor, 1906-1990, was a British historian with a prodigious output, but famous mainly for his controversial work: The Origins of the Second World War (1961), in which he claimed that Hitler was no different than any other German statesman and that British appeasement of Nazi Germany was honorable and good because its goal was to preserve peace. This was not meant to be irony. Taylor, a lifelong left-winger, had condemned Munich in the past, but changed his mind later. In answer to a question by Cienciala in London, in 1968, whether he meant the book to be controversail, he answered, rather angrily: "I meant every word I said." His autobiography shows that at the time of writing this book he was active in the British movement for unilateral, nuclear disarmament, so one may assume this influenced his positive re-interpretation of the appeasement of Nazi Germany.)

    Michael Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision. Greece in Asia Minor, 1919- 1922 (London, 1973).

    (A well written study of the Greek dream of a great Greece, and its defeat.)

    3. Interwar Greek Demographics.

    For the demographic consequences of the Greek-Turkish war, see:

    Elisabeth Kontogiorgi, Population Exchnge in Greek Macedonia: the Rural Settlement of Refugees, 1922-1930 (Oxford, 2006).

    S. P. Ladas, The Exchange of Minorities in Bulgariia, Greece, and Turkey, (London, 1932)

    (An old work, but still useful.).

    4. For Greek political and social history up to 1936, see:

    George T. Mavrocordatos, Stillborn Republic: Social Conditions and Political Strategies in Greece, 1922-1936, Berkeley, CA, 1983.

    The author, a Greek historian, sees the main theme of this period as a conflict between Venizelist republicans as modernizers and anti-Venizelists/monarchists.

    5. Greek Political History 1936-41.

    Jon V. Kofas, Authoritarianism in Greece: The Metaxas Regime, (East European Monographs, (Boulder, CO., and New York, N.Y.,1983).

    (General Ioannis Metaxas,1871-1941, was dictator of Greece in, 1936-1941).

    P. S. Vatikiotis, Popular Autocracy in Greece 1936-1941: A Political Biography of Iannis Metaxas (London, 1988).

    6. On Cyprus, Greece Turkey and Cyprus, see:

    Heinz A. Richter, comp., Greece and Cyprus since 1920; Bibliography of Contemporary History (Heidelberg, 1984).

    (Much has happened since 1984, but Cyprus is still divided into majority Greek and majority Turkish regions. See U.S. Army, Country Studies.)

    7. On Greek-British relations 1935-41, see:

    Giannes S, Koliopoulos, Greece and the British Connection, 1935- 1941 (Oxford, 1977).

    (The author is a Greek historian.)




    Sally Marks, The Illusion of Peace. International Relations in Europe, 1918-1933 (New York, 2003; revised edition of 1976 work).

    (An excellent survey and analysis of international relations in the period preceding Hitler's rise to power.)

    1. Appeasement and all European Powers

    Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Lothar Kettenacker, eds., The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement (London, 1983).

    (Mommsen and Kettenacker are German historians; the book has good chapters on British, French, German, Italian, Russian and U. S. policy, Selected, edited Russian diplomatic documents for the period 1939-41 were published in Moscow in 1990-92.)

    Telford Taylor, Munich. The Price of Peace (New York, 1979).

    (Telford Taylor, 1908-1998,, was the number two American prosecutor at the main Nuremberg Trials and chief prosecutor at those that followed. He also wrote many books, including one on the N. Trials. The book on Munich is a detailed study with emphasis on British, French and German policy, still useful today. Illustrations.).

    2. British appeasement of Germany:

    John Charmley, Chamberlain and the Lost Peace (London, 1989).

    (J. Charmley, b. Birkenhead, UK, 1955, is an unabashed defender of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy; chapters 8-10 deal with the Czechoslovak crisis and Munich. He has also published a highly critical study of Winston Churchill as war leader. N. Chamberlain, 1869-1940, was Prime Minister from 1937 to May 1940)

    Ian Colvin, The Chamberlain Cabinet How the meetings in 10 Downing Street 1937- 39 led to the Second World War. Told for the first time from the Cabinet Papers (London, 1971).

    (Ian Colvin, 1912-1975, was a correspondent for the News Chronicle and Daily Telegraph, stationed in Berlin, 1938-39, and had contacts with high ranking German opponents of Hitler. He set off a "war scare" in London in mid-March 1939, which contributed to the timing of the British Guarantee to Poland of March 3. This is a narrative with selected archival documents, which became accessible after the 1967 Act of Parliament reduced the time of closure for state papers from 50 to 30 years. This launched a rush by historians to publish new accounts of appeasement. Colvin condemns it, but most western historians came to judge the policy as natural in view of Britain's military weakness and economic problems. For a different view, see R. A. C. Parker below.)

    Keith Feiling, The Life of Neville Chamberlain (London, 1946).

    (Book IV, pp. 303-418, covers the period 1937-1939 . In writing this apologia for N. Chamberlain, Feiling had Lady Chamberlain's permission to use some of the letters her husband wrote to his sisters, expressing his thoughts on the policy he was implementing during the crises of 1938 and 1939. The book is still useful, especially since the bulk of N. Chamberlain's correspondence with his sisters and other papers for this crucial period, deposited by the family in the University of Birmingham Library, are closed for 100 years after the dates of the letters and documents.)

    Martin Gilbert, The Roots of Appeasement, London, 1966 (compare and contrast with A. J. P Taylor book below).

    (Sir Martin Gilbert, b. London, 1936, is a prolific British historian and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. He completed the biography of Winston S. Churchill begun by the latter's son, Randolph, and has published a great number of books. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of his services to history. The book condemns appeasement; it is still a valuable historical analysis, though written before British govt. documents became accessible in 1971.)

    A. Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson and the Guilt of Germany (Leicester, UK, 1984).

    (Anthony Lentin, b. Leicester, UK, 1941, documents the origins of appeasement in British experts' views of Germany at the Paris Peace Conference. He then taught in the Dept. of History, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada.)

    Peter Neville, Hitler and Appeasement: The British Attempt to Prevent the Second World War (London, New York, 2006).

    (P. Neville, b. 1944, agrees with John Charmley. His book is an able defense of Chamberlain; it does not, however, indicate much knowledge of Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe.)

    R. A. C. Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement: British Policy and the Coming of the Second World War (New York 1993).

    (Robert Alexander Clarke Parker, b. 1927, argues persuasively that while economic and military considerations affected British policy, Neville Chamberlain's own peace agenda was the most important factor in his appeasement policy.).

    A. J. P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War (Edinburgh, 1961).

    (A spirited defense of British appeasement by a British historian, 1906-1990, active supporter of unilateral British nuclear disarmament at the time of writing. For a reappraisal, see Martel book below.)

    Gordon Martel, ed., THE ORIGINS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR RECONSIDERED. The A. J. P. Taylor Debate after Twenty-Five Years, (Boston, 1986; 2nd edition:The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered, London and New York, 1999, with some different authors).

    (Martel is a Canadian historian. The first edition of this book, reprinted several times,provided a most valuable discussion both of Taylor's views and the events themselves. The second edition is updated but lacks chapters by Norman Rich, Piotr S. Wandycz, Lloyd Gardner, Akira Iriye, and Edward Ingram.).

    For a 1995 review of then recent works, see:

    Wesley K. Wark, "Appeasement Revisited," The International History Review, vol. XVII, no. 3, August 1995, pp. 545-562.

    (W. K. Wark, b. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1952, has written on British Intelligence and Nazi Germany (1985). He then taught at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada.)

    (3) East European States and Appeasement

    NOTE: The bulk of English and American studies of appeasement focuses on British and French policy toward Germany in the Austrian and Czechoslovak crises of 1938, generally ignorie the reactions of the East European states and their views of their national interests. Exceptions to this rule are:

    David E. Kaiser, Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War. Germany, Britain, France and Eastern Europe, 1930-1939, (Princeton, N. J., 1980).

    (D. E. Kaiser, b. Washington, D. C., 1947, has also published on the Sacco and Vanzetti case [1985] and on European conflict from Philip II to Hitler [1990]. He taught at Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA and now teaches at Williams College, Williamstown, MASS. Here, he combines political and economic history to show western disinterest and German interest in the region.)

    Maya Latynski, ed., Reappraising the Munich Pact. Continental Perspectives (Baltimore, Md., 1992).

    (M. Latynski, then a lecturer and grad. student at Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., has translated and edited works dealing with Polish history. This book contains chapters on Germany and Munich, France, the Czechoslovak view, the Diplomacy of Edvard Benes and Munich, and the view from Warsaw by A. M. Cienciala. The latter's contribution was updated in the work listed below.)

    Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, eds., The Munich Crisis, 1938. Prelude to World War II (London, Portland OR., 1999).

    (Igor Lukes is a specialist in inter-war Czechoslovak history - see book below - who teaches at Boston University; Erik Goldstein has published books on interwar British foreign policy, and also teaches at Boston University. The book has chapters on Stalin and Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Munich, Poland and Munich [Cienciala], France, Britain and Munich, also the Sino-Japanese conflict and the Munich crisis. There are notes on the contributors. The same texts were published in: Diplomacy and Statecraft, London, 1999, and Stredni Evropa, nos. 92, 93, Prague, 1999.)

    For an Anti-Nazi, Sudeten German view of British policy in the Czechoslovak crisis, see:

    J. W. Bruegel, Czechoslovakia Before Munich. The German Minority Problem and British Appeasement Policy (Cambridge, Eng., 1973).

    (Basing his work on British archival sources, the author, a Sudeten German, bitterly condemns British policy.)

    4. The policy of President Edvard Benes in the Munich Crisis is still the subject of much controversy among Czech historians, see:

    Joseph F. Zacek, "The Czechoslovak View" in: M. Latynski, Reappraising the Munich Pact, (see above) pp. 47-60, and

    Michael Kraus, "The Diplomacy of Edvard Benes: Munich and Its Aftermath," ibid., 61-74.

    Alfred D. Low, "Edvard Benes, the Anschluss Movement, 1918-38, and the Policy of Czechoslovakia," EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, vol. 10, Parts 1-2, 1983, pp. 46-91.

    Igor Lukes, Czechoslovakia between Stalin and Hitler. The Diplomacy of Edvard Benes in the 1930s (New York, Oxford, 1996).

    For Igor Lukes, see sections above.The work, based mainly on Czech archival sources, is very critical of both Benes and the USSR.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "The Foreign Policy of Edvard Benes, 1918-1938, " in Mamatey and Luza, The Czechoslovak Republic 1918-1948 (1973), pp. 216-238.

    (P.S. Wandycz, b. Poland, 1923, is em. prof. history, Yale, a specialist on interwar diplomatic history, and the leading American historian of Poland and E. Central Europe.)

    5. French policy toward Poland and Czechoslovakia, foreshadowing Munich, is most ably presented by

    Piotr W. Wandycz, The Twilight of French Eastern Alliances 1926-1936, French-Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from Locarno to the Remilitarization of the Rhineland ( Princeton, 1988).

    (A masterly study based on French, Polish and Czech archives, this work is a sequel to the same author's book on French-Polish-Czechoslovak Relations in 1919- 1925 [Minneapolis, MN, 1962]. Each book received the AHA George Louis Beer Prize.0

    On French policy, see also articles on France in: Mommsen and Kettenacker, The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement, ch. 14-17. section: II D, 1, above.

    6. Hitler's policy in the Munich Crisis:

    Gerhard L. Weinberg, The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany. Starting World War II, 1937-1939 (Chicago and London, 1980 (ch. 10, 11).

    Same, Hitler's Foreign Policy: the Road to World War II, 1933-1939 (New York, 2005)

    This work combines theearlier 2 vol. work with updates.G. L. Weinberg, b. Hanover, Germany, 1928, educated in U. S., is the pre- eminent American specialist on Hitler's foreign policy. He is Professor emeritus of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. For a brief summary, see his chapter in in Maya Latynski, ed., Reappraising the Munich Pact, also his "Reflections on Munich after 60 Years," in Lukes and Goldstein, The Munich Crisis 1938, London, Portland Or., 1999, pp. 1-12 .).

    7. Polish policy in the Munich Crisis is summarized in

    Anna M. Cienciala's chapter, in Maya Latynski, ed., Reappraising the Munich Pact,

    same, updated chapter in Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, The Munich Crisis, 1938, pp. 48-81.

    See also:

    Cienciala, Poland and the Western Powers 1938-1939. A Study in the Interdependence of Eastern and Western Europe, (London, Toronto, 1968) ch. I, II, III..

    (The book, a revised Ph.D. dissertation, is based mainly on Polish archival sources available in London and still valuable for Polish foreign policy. British and French archival sources inaccessible at that time, were used in the author's chapter in the Latynski and Lukes and Goldstein books.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "Poland between East and West," in: G. Martel, The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered, (1986), pp. 187-209.

    (Deals with Taylor's negative evaluation of Polish foreign policy.)

    8. Soviet policy in the Munich Crisis and 1939.

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 23 1939. When did Stalin Decide to Align with Hitler, and Was Poland the Culprit?" in: M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe (University of Rochester Press, 2003), pp. 147-226.

    The author , the Free City of Danzig/Gdansk, now Prof. Em. History Univ. of Kansas and a specialist in European diplomatic history, 1914-45, argues that Stalin aimed at alignment with Hitler at least as of 3 May 1939 - dismissal of Maxim Litvinov as Commissar for Foreign Affairs - if not earlier, and that Polish opposition to the Soviet demand for Red Army entry into Poland in case of war with Germany was not the decisive factor in Stalin's decision to align with Hitler.)

    A. A. Gromyko and B. N. Ponomarev eds., Soviet Foreign Policy, vol. I., 1917-1945 (Moscow, 1980), ch. XI, pp. 325-345..

    (Andrei A. Gromyko,1909-1989, was Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs 1938-52 and 1957-1985. Boris N. Ponomarev, b. 1905, was head of the Central Committee's International Department, 1955-1985. The work gives the official Soviet view; it accuses Britain and France of plotting to push Hitler into an attack on the USSR, thus forcing Stalin into a pact with Hitler. This view is shared by Vladimir Putin and even by such a strong critic of Stalin as the late Russian historian Dmitri Volkogonov, see below)

    Jonathan Haslam, The Soviet Union and the Struggle for Collective Security in Europe, 1933-1939 (New York, 1984).

    (J. Haslam was then a Fellow and Director of Studies in History at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, UK, and a specialist on inter-war Soviet foreign policy This work is favorable to Stalin, claiming he had no other choice but to conclude a pact with Hitler. However, his chapter in a more recent book shows a change of view, see below)

    Jonathan Haslam, "Litvinov, Stalin and the Road not Taken," in: Gabriel Gorodetsky, ed., Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991. A Retrospective, (London, 1994), ch. 5, pp. 55-64.

    (Here Haslam argues that Stalin decided to throw in his hand with Hitler when he dismissed Maxim M. Litvinov as Commissar of Foreign Affairs, May 3, 1939. Molotov replaced Litvinov while also remaining Head of the Soviet Council of Ministers (Cabinet). Gorodetsky was then Director of the Cummings Center for Russian and East European Studies, and Academic Adviser to the Staff College of the Israeli Defense Forces. He is a historian of Anglo-Soviet relations and has published many books dealing with Soviet foreign policy..)

    Jiri Hochman, The Soviet Union and the Failure of Collective Security, 1934-1938 (Ithaca, 1984)

    .( J. Hochman, b. Prague, 1926, has edited Alexander Dubcek's memoirs [see Bibl. Part III]; then taught in the School of Journalism, Ohio State University and returned to Prague after the collapse of communism in 1989. The book is critical of Soviet foreign policy in the 1930s;: it includes Romanian Foreign Minister Petrescu Comnene's French language letter of Sept. 24, 1938, to Soviet Foreign Commissar, Maxim Litvinov, when both were in Geneva, giving the Romanian government's consent to the transit of Soviet troops through Romania to Czechoslovakia in case of war, also for the overflight of Soviet planes [Appendix C, pp. 194-201, text in French]. Some historians doubt the letter is genuine in view of spelling mistakes while Comnene was proficient in French. Either he or Litvinov, might, however, have dictated it to a secretary whose French was not perfect. The question is, who would have had an interest in forging such a letter? It seems that Litvinov would have had more interest to do so than Comnene.)

    Igor Lukes, "Stalin and Czechoslovakia in 1938-39: An Autopsy of a Myth," in: Lukes and Goldstein, eds., The Munich Crisis 1938 (London, Portland OR., 1999), pp. 13-47.

    (The author does not believe that Stalin ever intended to give Czechoslovakia military help in a war with Germany. He also cites a Czech report about Zhdanov's visit in Prague and his statements to leaders of the Czechoslovak Communist Party there. Other historians specializing in Soviet-Czech relations think the report is a forgery. Again, the quetion is, who would have had an interest in forging this document? Zhdanov,was the party leader in Leningrad. )

    New Documents on the History of Munich, Prague, 1958.

    (Even these documents, carefully selected from the Czechoslovak and Soviet archives, throw doubt on Stalin's readiness to aid Czechoslovakia.):

    Hugh Ragsdale, The Soviets, the Munich Crisis, and the Coming of World War II (Cambridge, 2004).

    (Ragsdale develops the thesis outlined in an earlier article of his, that theWestern view of Soviet unreliability was incorrect and that the Red Army was ready to intervene in defense of Czechoslovakia. No detailed Soviet military plan to do so has, however, come to light and when, on receiving the Munich Conference decision on the Sudetenland on Sept. 30 1938, Benes asked the Soviet ambassador in Prague, whether the Soviets would help -- the answer came after he resigned as President and was the same as before: the Soviets would help if France did so first, as per the Czechoslovak-Soviet alliance of May 1935.)

    Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin's Wars: from World War to Cold War, 1939-1945, (New Haven Conn., 2006)

    Roberts, who teaches at the University of Cork, Ireland, also views the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of Aug. 23, 1939, as a reasonable Stalin policy move.).

    Dmitri Volkogonov, STALIN, TRIUMPH AND TRAGEDY, tr and ed. Harold Shukman (New York, 1988).

    (General Dmitri Volkogonov, 1928-1995, whose father was shot in Stalin's purges while his mother was sent to the Gulag (labor camps), had a successful career in the Red Army. He was Deputy Chief of the Red Army's Political Administration for many years after 1970. He also held several other posts, including Head of the Soviet Institute of Military History in 1992, but lost it when he wrote a revisionist version of the Soviet Union in World War II, criticizing Stalin. He was a historical adviser to President Boris N. Yeltsin. Besides the book on Stalin, he wrote biographies of Trotsky and Lenin. All three books are based on archival sources and are highly critical of their subjects. He shared, however, the standard Soviet view that Stalin was pushed into his pact with Hitler by the appeasement policy of France and Britain toward Germany, and this is also the view of most. Russian historians today. See also his The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire , also translated by Shukman(1998, a British historian of Russia..Volkogonov's papers are in the Library of Congress. Harold Shukman, b. London,1931, has written and translated many books dealing with Soviet history. He is a member of the Russian Center, St. Anthony's College, Oxford, UK).

    9. The Germans of Czechoslovakia before and after World War I.

    (See under Czechoslovakia, above).

    Section 10.The British Guarantee to Poland and the Outbreak of World War II.

    1. General

    A. J. P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War (London 1961, and later reprints).

    (On A. J. P. Taylor, see earlier mentions under Appeasement). This is a frankly biased defense of Br. appeasement, viewing Hitler as a normal German statesman (!), with a very negative view of Polish foreign policy -- of which the autthor knew nothing. For a critiques, see : Gordon Martel, ed., The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered. The A. J. P. Taylor Debate after Twenty-Five Years, Boston, 1986; 2nd edition, New York, 1999.)

    2. Detailed.

    Anna M. Cienciala, Poland and the Western Powers, 1938-1939. A Study in the Interdependence of Eastern and Western Europe (London, Toronto, 1968), ch. VII.

    (Based largely on archival Polish diplomatic documents held in the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum, London, the book is still valuable for Polish foreign policy, but British and French archival sources were unavailable at the time. For a study based on these as well as Polish documents, see:

    same: "Poland in British and French Policy in 1939: Determination to Fight or Avoid War?" Polish Review, vol. 24, 1989, no. 3, pp. 199-226. Reprinted in a slightly shortened form in: Patrick Finney, ed., The Origins of the Second World War (London, 1997), pp. 413-433.)

    Simon Newman, March 1939: The British Guarantee to Poland (Oxford, 1979).

    (S. Newman is a Canadian historian. The book is valuable for citing archival British documents, but the author's thesis that the British government guaranteed Poland's independence in order to provoke Germany into war is definitely a minority view).

    Anita J. Prazmowska, Britain, Poland, and the Eastern Front, 1939 (Cambridge, UK, 1987).

    . (Prazmowska is a British historian of Polish origin teaching at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The book is very good on British policy, but the author's treatment of Polish foreign policy follows the conventional, negative stereotype. For a different interpretation,see Cienciala above.)

    Donald Cameron Watt, How War Came. The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939 (New York, 1989).

    D. C. Watt, b. Rugby, UK, 1928, served in the British Army, 1946-48 and Foreign Office, 1951-53; was an assistant British editor for Documents on German Foreign Policy, and later the Stevenson Professor of International Relations, London School of Economics. He edited several volumes of British Documents on Foreign Affairs, 1859-1914, and later years. He is the pre-eminent British historian on the subject; the book is well written with exhaustive detail, but presents the standard, negative view of Polish foreign policy.)



    (For a survey, see Lecture Notes on EE in WW II)


    Joseph Rotschild, Nancy M. Wingfield, Return to Diversity. A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II, 4th edition, (Oxford, New York, 2008)..

    (On J. Rothschild, d. 1999, see listing of his book on interwar E. Europe. The lst edition of the above book came out in 1989, the 2nd in 1993; the 3rd and 4th were updated and edited by Prof. Nancy M. Wingfield of Northern Illinois University.)

    For more detailed surveys and interpretations, see:

    Stephen D. Kertesz, ed., THE FATE OF EAST CENTRAL EUROPE. Hopes and Failures of American Foreign Policy (Notre Dame, IN, 1956).

    (S. D. Kertesz, b. Hungary, 1904, d. U.S. 1986, analyzes U. S. foreign policy toward E. Europe. The book is outdated but still worth reading.)

    same, Between Russia and the West: Hungary and the Illusions of Peace Making, 1945-1947, Notre Dame, IN., 1948.

    Geir Lundestad, THE AMERICAN NON-POLICY TOWARDS EASTERN EUROPE 1943-1947. Universalism in an Area Not of Essential Interest to the United States (Tromso, Norway, 1978).

    (Detailed, critical survey of American universalism and studies by country, written with Nordic thoroughness by a Norwegian scholar.)

    Vojtech Mastny, RUSSIA'S ROAD TO THE COLD WAR. Warfare and the Politics of Communism, 1941-1945 (New York, 1979).

    (V. Mastny ,b. Prague, 1936, then taught at the Center for International Affairs, Boston University. This is still a valuable study although it lacks Russian documents on foreign polcy for 1939-41, important selections of which were published in Moscow in the early 1990s.)

    same, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity. The Stalin Years (New York, Oxford, 1996, also available in electronic form), ch. 1..

    (Note: Documents on Soviet foreign policy published in the Soviet period are useful but obviously favorable to the USSR. Russian archival materials on foreign and military policy are still largely classified for the period 1921- 45, although a few volumes were published for 1939-42. Archival access is limited with exceptions sometimes made for individual scholars. Some documents are available for the Cold War Years.)

    Mark Mazower, Hitler's Empire; How the Nazis Ruled Europe (New York, 2008)

    (M. Mazower, a professor of history at Columbia University, New York, has published several books on recent Balkan history, including two on. Greece. The book on Hitler's empire shows mastery of the subject, is well written, and devotes much space to Central/Eastern Europe, but compare and. contrast with Timothy Snyder book below.)

    Jean W. Sedlar, Hitler's Central European Empire, 1938-1945 (Bangor, ME, 2007).

    Jean W. Sedlar, The Axis Empire in Southeast Europe, 1939-1945 (Bangor, ME, 2007)

    (Jean W. Sedlar, a specialist on medieval East Central Europe, has also written on India and the Greek world, as well as readings in world history. In the two volumes on Hitler's rule over East Central and Southeast Europe, she traces the history of all the countries involved proceeding simultaneously by major periods and including Finland - part of Scandinavia -in East Central Europe. This is unusual but justified because Finland was involved in WWII when attacked by the USSR, which led to the Soviet-Finnish war, known as the "Winter War," Nov. 30, 1939-March 12,1940. The Finns made victory very costly to the Soviets and managed to preserve their autonomy in the period 1945-89.)

    Timothy Snyder. Bloodlands. Europe Between Hitler and Stalin (New York, 2010).

    (Timothy Snyder, Professor of East European History, Yale University, writes about Soviet and German terror in the former eastern lands of the interwar Polish republic, now the western parts of the Belarusian and Ukrainian republics. He points out that it is here, not in Auschwitz, Belsen, or Buchenwald, that the majority of East European Jews were murdered, as well as large numbers of Poles, Belarusians and Ukrainians. He starts, however, with a powerful chapter on Stalin's calculated, cold blooded policy of starving to death millions of Ukrainian peasants, who had initially opposed collectivization. He then writes of Stalin's class and national terror in 1937-38, aimed at class enemies -- esp. peasants; those Stalin suspected of possibly opposing his policies in case of war, especially Soviet citizens of Polish and Finnish nationality, as well as officers of higher ranks in the Soviet armed forces. About 665,000 Soviet citizens were shot at that time. Snyder then writes of the Nazi death factories in the East;, resistance and incineration; ethnnic cleansing [mainly Ukrainian action against Poles and vice versa], and ends with Stalinist anti-semitism.)

    i. Poland in WW II

    For Surveys see:

    Jozef Garlinski, Poland in the Second World War (New York, 1985).

    (J. Garlinski, b. Poland, 1913, d. London c. 2004, served in the Polish Home Army -- Armia Krajowa -- and was briefly a prisoner in WW II; he lived in London after the war. This is a good overview. He wrote 16 other books in Polish and English; these in English were on the "Enigma" code, the German V1 and V-2 weapons, and resistance in Auschwitz.) See also:

    Michael Alfred Peszke, Battle for Warsaw, 1939-1944, East European Monographs no. CDXXVII (Boulder CO, and New York, 1995).

    (This is a history of Poland's armed struggle in World War II with key treaties in appendices, also a chronology and bibliography of English and Polish language works. A. M. Peszke, b. Deblin, Poland, 1932, is a psychiatrist by profession, now retired, and a historian by avocation. He has published a book on the Polish Navy in World War II, and has written on the Polish air force).

    Steven J. Zaloga, The Polish Army 1939-1945, Color Plates by Richard Hook, Osprey Men-at-Arms Series, 117, ( London, 1982).

    (Arms, uniforms and battles of Polish armed forces in East and West, with many photographs; Steven J. Zaloga is a Polish-American military historian who co- authored a book on the Polish-German war of 1939, see below.)

    (ii) The German-Polish War, September 1 October 5, 1939.

    Nicholas W. Bethell, THE WAR HITLER WON; The Fall of Poland, September 1939, (New York, 1972).

    (By a British author, this book deals mainly with the lack of British military action in the West when Hitler attacked Poland. The book is based on British and Polish documents, also oral accounts, and has reproductions of contemporary political cartoons).

    Lynne Olson and Stanley Cloud, A Question of Honor. The Kosciuszko Squadron. Forgotten Heroes of World War II,( New York, 2003).

    [A lively account of Polish pilots in the Battle of Britain, plus a history of Poland written in a patriotic Polish spirit, condemning the western betrayal of Poland at the end of WW II. The American authors were aided in this work by a Polish researcher. General Wladyslaw Anders is unfairly criticized for not getting more Poles out of the USSR to Iran; he could not do more because of Soviet obstaccles to releasing Polish industrial and farm workers; they were at a premium due to great loss of Soviet manpower in the war.. For a critical review see John Whiteclay Chambers II, The Washington Post, "Book World," 12-18 October 2003. For the polemic (in Polish) between Chambers and the authors, joined byWladyslaw Bartoszewski, famous Polish WWII resistance fighter and member of the "Zegota" organization to save Polish Jews; later dissident, Solidarity member, and minister after the fall of communism, see Przeglad Polski -- the weekly, cultural supplement to the Polish language New York daily, Nowy Dziennik -- Sat-Sun. 7-8 Feb. 2004, pp. 36-37.]

    Jerzy B. Cynk, HISTORY OF THE POLISH AIR FORCE 1918-1968, (Reading, England, 1972), ch. 4, pp. 121-155.

    (J. B. Cynk, b. Poland, 1925, was in the Polish resistance in WW II; was imprisoned in Auschwitz; settled in UK after the war. He tends to be overly critical of the small funding of the interwar Polish air force. Poland was an underdeveloped country which had much to catch up with after over 100 years under foreign rule during the partition period and only 20 years of independence. Polish industrial, esp. arms production, was planned to take off in 1942, but war intervened and the country was destroyed again just after it had rebuilt and expanded its infrastructure after great destruction in German-Russian fighting during WWI.)

    Robert M. Kennedy, THE GERMAN CAMPAIGN IN POLAND (1939), Washington, (Dept. of the Army) D. C., 1956.

    (The book is based exclusively on German sources available at the time. For a more recent and comprehensive account, see Zaloga and Madaj below).

    Janusz Piekalkiewicz, The Cavalry of World War Two, (London, 1979).

    (On the Polish cavalry in Sept. 1939. Contrary to widespread belief, it did not attack German tanks; it was a mobile force important mainly for its horse artillery. The author is a Polish military historian then living in Western Europe).

    Alexander B. Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg, Ideology, and Atrocity (Lawrence, KS, 2003).

    (The author, b. 1966, discusses Nazi goals and atrocities in the Polish-German war of September 1939. He sees the atrocities and other German measures against both Jews and ethnic Poles -- mostly targeting the latter at this time -- as the laboratory for what German armies and police were to do in the Balkans, and especially in the USSR. See Cienciala review in the The Polish Review, 2004.)

    Przemyslaw Rozanski, "The New York Times Response to Soviet Aggression in Poland in September 1939," Polish American Studies, v. LXVIII, no.1, spring 2011, pp.20- 41. (Ttranslation of author's Polish language article i Studia Historica Gedanensia, Gdansk, 2011, no. 1, pp. 303-324.)

    General K. S. Rudnicki, THE LAST OF THE WAR HORSES, (London, 1974),(ch. 1 - 5.)

    (Klemens Rudnicki, 1897-1995, served in the Pilsudski Legions in WW!, and in the interwar Polish Army. He was imprisoned in USSR 1939-41, then served in the Polish Second Corps; after the wa he settled in U.K.)

    David G. Williamson, Poland Betrayed. The Nazi-Soviet Invasions of 1939 (Barnsley, U.K. Pen and Sword, 2009).

    (Reviewed with other books on Poland in WWII by Jacek Garlinski, Polish Review, v.LV, 2010, no. 3, pp. 343-345.

    S. J. Zaloga and Victor Madej, THE POLISH CAMPAIGN 1939 (New York, 1985).

    (This is a v. good study by two Polish-American military historians, but without notes and with the stereotype, negative view of Polish interwar foreign policy. On the latter, see books and articles by Piotr S. Wandycz and Anna M. Cienciala listed in section on interwar Poland.)

    Adam Zamoyski, THE FORGOTTEN FEW. The Polish Air Force in the Second World War (London, 1995), ch. 2.

    (Adam Zamoyski, b. of Polish parents, New York, 1949, lives in London and has authored several books on Polish history. This is a well deserved tribute to largely unknown Polish airmen. Compare with the Olson and Cloud book listed above.).

    (iii) The Polish contribution to breaking German military codes.

    Jozef Garlinski, The Enigma War (New York, 1980).

    (On Jozef Garlinski, see section 1 above).

    Wladyslaw Kozaczuk (trans. and edited by Christopher Kasparek), Enigma: How the German Cipher Machine was Broken and How it was Read by the Allies in World War II, (University Publications of America, 1984).

    (Detailed account of a key Polish contribution to the western Allies' war effort by a Polish authority on the subject. In September 2,000, Prince Edward of Britain presented to the Polish Government in Warsaw copies of the two enigma machines given secretly by the Poles to British and French military intelligence officers in Warsaw, July 1939. This was the beginning of the work that continued in Bletchley Park, England. Prince Edward also promised to have the Polish contribution to breaking the German codes included in the Encyclopedia Britannica article on code breaking in WW II; check it out!)

    Richard A. Woytak, ON THE BORDER OF WAR AND PEACE. Polish Intelligence and Diplomacy in 1937-1939 and the Origins of the Ultra Secret, East Eur. Mon. no XLIX, (Boulder CO, and New York, 1979).

    (The late R. A. Woytak was an American historian of Polish descent.)

    (iv) The Poles under German occupation.

    Szymon Datner, Janusz Gumkowski, Kazimierz Leszczynski, War Crimes in Poland. Genocide 1939-1945, (Wydawnictwo Zachodnie, Poznan, Warsaw, 1962).

    (Deals with German war crimes against the Polish population; has lists of executions by location; see also Pilichowski below.)

    Lucjan Dobroszycki, REPTILE JOURNALISM. The Official Polish-Language Press under the Nazis, 1939-1945, (New Haven, CT, London, 1994).

    (L. Dobroszycki,(b. Lodz, Poland, 1925, d. New York, 1998, worked as a historian in Poland, then at theYIVO Institute, New York and authored works on Polish Jews. N.B. Every German-occupied country's official press was under German control.)

    Catherine Epstein, Model Nazi: Arthur Greiser and the Occupation of Western Poland ( Oxford University Press, 2010).

    (Greiser was the earlier head of the Nazi Party in Danzig/Gdansk.See Piotr Wrobel review in The Slavic Review, v. 70, no. 4, 2011, pp. 912-913.)

    Jan T. Gross, Polish Society under German Occupation: The General- Gouvernement, 1939-1944, (Princeton, N. J., 1979).

    (J. T. Gross, b. Poland, 1947, a Political Scientist, then taught at New York University. This is a sociological-historical study, very critical of Polish attitudes toward the Jews; compare with R. C. Lukas work below.)

    Alicja Iwanska, Polish Intelligentsia in Nazi Concentration Camps and American Exile. A Study of Values in Crisis Situations, (Mellon, Lewiston, ca. 1998).

    (A. Iwanska, b. Lublin, Poland, 1919, d. London, 1998, was a sociologist, poet, and biographer. She fought in the Polish resistance in WW II, studied Philosophy in Poland and U. S., then Anthropology and Sociology. She taught for many years at SUNY, Albany, N. Y., published 10 sociological-anthropological studies, moved to London after retiring in 1985.)

    Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation, 1939-1944, (Louisville, Ky, 1986 and New York, 1997).

    (R. C. Lukas, b. Lynn, Mass, 1937, is an American historian of Polish descent, author of books on Polish history; now retired in Florida. The book led to a vigorous polemic with Israeli historian Engel in the Slavic Review in 1987).

    Same, Did the Children Cry? Hitler's War against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939-1945 (New York, 1994).

    Same, Forgotten Survivors: Polish Christians Remember the Nazi Occupation (Lawrence, KS 2004).

    Dietmut Majer, Non-Germans under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939-1945, translated by Peter Thomas Hill, Edward Vance, and Brian Levin, (Baltimore, MD, 2003.

    Czeslaw Pilichowski, No Time Limit for these Crimes! (Council for the Protection of Monuments of Struggle and Martyrdom, Interpress, Warsaw, 1980).

    (Gives an overview of German occupation policies, also graphic accounts of German crimes against ethnic Poles and Polish Jews; many illustrations; useful appendices giving numbers and nationalities of prisoners in German camps.)

    Piotrowski, Tadeusz, Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with the Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Polish Republic, 1918-1947 (Jefferson, N.C., 1987).

    (By a Sociologist b. in eastern Poland, 1940, professor at the University of New Hampshire, Manchester, N.H.. The book covers interwar, wartime, and early postwar Poland. Piotrowski has written four other books on Poles in WWII.)

    Joseph Poprzeczny, Odillo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East (McFarland, Jefferson, N.C., 2004). See also Rieger.

    (Globocnik carried out the expulsion of Polish farmers and their families from a part of Lublin province in 1942, replacing them with Germans from Romanian Bessarabia; "aryan" looking Polish children were put in railway box cars to be sent to Germany, but some were rescued by Poles at the Warsaw station. Other children were murdered. Parent were deported for forced labor in Germany. The Peasant Party's "Peasant Battalions" attacked and burned down many of the farms taken over by German settlers.)

    Berndt Rieger, Creator of Nazi Death Cmaps: The Life of Odilo Globocnik (Valentine Mitchell, London, Portland OR, 2007).

    Philip Rutherford, Prelude to the Final Solution: the Nazi Program for Deporting Ethnic Poles, 1939-1941 (Lawrence, KS, 2007).

    (Has a good, preliminary chapter on pre-1939 Polish-German relations and gives much unknown or little known information on the deportation of Poles from western Poland --annexed to Germany --to the General-Gouvernement - German-occupied Poland - as well as on the unrealistic German program of deporting most Poles to Siberia after the expected German conquest of the USSR.)

    (v) The Polish resistance movement and the underground state in WW II.

    Czeslaw Z. Banasiewicz, Tadeusz Bielecki, Leszek Szymanski, Warsaw Aflame. The 1939-1945 Years, (Polamerica Press, Los Angeles, CA, 1973).

    (This is an album of photographs mostly unknown in the West, with text by two Polish emigre writers, L. Szymanski, b. Poland, 1934, and T. Bielecki, b. Poland, 1922. Bielecki fought in the Polish Home Army. Banasiewicz, b. Poland, 1934, spent a few months in a prison camp; he provided graphics for the album. The book has an excellent, chronological account of Polish resistance.)

    Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, WARSAW DEATH RING 1919-1944, (Warsaw, 1968).

    (This book is an illustrated account of the German terror in Warsaw. Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, b. Warsaw, 1922, was a prisoner in Auschwitz, 1940-41; a soldier in the Polish Home Army -- Armia Krajowa - a founding member of "Zegota," the Polish underground organization established in summer 1942 to help save Jews; a dissident under Polish communist regimes, and author of many articles and books on the Polish resistance and Polish-Jewish relations during the war. After the collapse of communism in Poland in summer1989, Bartoszewski served as Polish ambassador to Austria, and as Polish Foreign Minsister. He is the recipient of many honors, including for his work to improve Polish-German relations)

    Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, The Secret Army, (London, 1950; reprint Nashville, TN., 1984).

    (General T. Bor-Komorowski -- sometimes listed under Komorowski --, 1895-1966, was Commander-in-chief of the Home Army, 1943-44, including the Warsaw Uprising; this is a translation of his account. He settled in London after the war and died there.).

    Kazimierz Iranek-Osmecki, The Unseen and Silent: Adventures from the Underground Movement Narrated by Paratroops of the Polish Home Army, (London, 1954).

    (The author tells stories of the Polish military -- not really paratroopers -- known as "the unseen and silent," flown from Britain and parachuted into Poland, where they joined the Armia Krajowa = Polish Home Army. General K. Iranek-Osmecki, 1897-1984, was chief of the Home Army Intelligence Service; fought in the Warsaw Uprising of Aug-Oct. 1944; was taken prisoner by the Germans, and settled in the U.K. after the war.)

    Stefan Korbonski, The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1944, ,( East European Monographs nlo. 37, Boulder, CO, and New York, 1978); Fighting Warsaw: the Story of the Polish Underground State, 1939-1945, New York, Hippocrene Books, 2004).

    (S. Korbonski, b. Poland, 1903, d. Washington, D. C., 1989, was a prominent member of the Polish Peasant Party, head of the Civilian Resistance movement under the German occupation, and the last Delegate of the Polish Government in Poland. He settled in Washington, D.C. and received the Medal of Freedom from President Ronald Reagan. This is an excellent guide to underground by a man who was active in its civilian authorities, but he omits the political divisions among the groups within the resistance.)

    See also articles translated from Polish on:

    (vi) Poland in World War II: accounts and memoirs.

    Stefan Badeni, A Stranger to Hell. A Memoir by Stefan Badeni, Introduction by Jan Badeni, (Padstow, Cornwall, U.K., 1988).

    (A Polish aristocrat writes about his imprisonment in the German concentration camp at Mauthausen.)

    Beyond Human Endurance: The Ravensbruck Women Tell Their Stories, (Warsaw, 1970).

    ( Personal accounts of young Polish women used for medical experiments in Ravensbruck concentration camp, Germany.)

    Jozef Garlinski, THE SURVIVAL OF LOVE. Memoirs of a Resistance Officer, (Oxford, 1991).

    (The late Jozef Garlinski was a member of the Armia Krajowa, The Polish Home Army. He wrote several books on Poles and Poland in WWII.)

    Same, Fighting Auschwitz. The Resistance Movement in the Concentration Camp, (London, 1975)..

    Jan Karski, The Story of a Secret State (Boston, 1940, reprint 2002, and London, 2011).

    Jan Karski, 1914-2000, obtained law degrees from the Jan Kazimierz University, Lwow/Lviv before the war and completed Polish officer training with distinction. Captured by the Soviets in Eastern Poland, September 1939, he tore off his officer's insignia; was exchanged with other Polish rank-and-file for Ukrainian and Belarusian soldiers of the Polish Army; escaped from a German prison train and worked in the underground. He traveled as a courier to Paris, 1940; returned and set out again but was caught and tortured by the Germans; escaped and traveled to London, where he arrived in late 1942, bringing eyewitness evidence of a German death camp for Jews and the dreadful conditions in the Warsaw Ghetto. . He was sent by the Polish government to the United States in 1944, where he saw FDR and high U.S officials to inform them of Polish resistance and the German extermination of the Jews. He.wrote this book -- a best seller --to inform the American public about Polish resistance against the Germans. He also tried but failed to get the Britisn and U.S. governments to act against the Nazi genocide of the Jews. For his biography see Jankowski andWood below. )

    Karolina Lanckoronska, Michelangelo in Ravesnbruck: One Woman's War against the Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 2007).

    (This memoir, also published as: Those Who Trespass against Us: One Woman's War against the Nazis, London, 2005, recounts an extraordinary woman's resistance against the Germans. Lanckoronska, 1898-2002, was born into a wealthy, Polish, noble family and educated as an art historian. She tells of her underground work in German-occupied Poland; her imprisonment and near death in prison; her work in the Polish resistance; and her imprisonment in the German concentration camp at Ravensbruck. When liberated, she joined the Polish Second Corps in Italy and settled in Rome after the war. There she co-founded an institute for the study of Polish history and edited a series of volumes on Polish historical sources in the West and a historical journal: Antemurale. She established the Lanckoronski Foundation which supports research and publications on Polish history and culture.)

    George "Jur" Lerski, Poland's Secret Envoy, 1939-1945, (New York, 1988).

    (Jerzy -- George -- Lerski, 1917-1992, was parachuted into German-occupied Poland in Feb. 1943 as a special emissary of General W. Sikorski, head of the Polish govt. in London and commander-in-chief of Polish armed forces. Lerski returned to London overland through Europe, leaving in late 1943 and arriving in March 1944. The book is valuable not only for the account of Lerski's daring, but also for his potrayal of the Polish govt. in London. He taught for many years at the University of San Francisco, edited a book of douments on Herbert Hoover's help to Poland after WWI, also a dictionary of Polish history to 1945.)

    Jan Nowak [Jezioranski], Courier from Warsaw, (Detroit, 1982).

    (Jan Zdzislaw Nowak-Jezioranski, b Warsaw, 1913, d. Warsaw c. 2005,. worked for the Home Army's "Department of Misinformation," directed at the Germans. He traveled as a courier to Sweden and to U.K, returning in time for the Warsaw Uprising, which he witnessed, then escaped to the West. He was for many years, the director of the Polish Section of Radio Free Europe in Munich,then lived in Washington, D.C.. There, he played an active part in promoting the extension of NATO to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, which took place in spring 1999. He was also active in the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America.)

    Konstanty Piekarski, Escaping Hell: The Story of a Polish Underground Officer in Auschwitz and Buchenwald (Toronto, 1989).

    (True story by the author, 1915-1990, who was a soldier in the Polish Underground Army, operating even inside two German concentration camps.)

    Witold Sagaillo, THE MAN IN THE MIDDLE. A Story of the Polish Resistance: 1940- 1945, (New York, 1985).

    (A Polish naval officer recounts his experiences in the Polish underground movement during the war.)

    Irene Tomaszewski ed., I am First a Human Being. The Prison Letters of Krystyna Wituska, (Montreal, 1997); also published as: Inside a Gestapo Prison. The letters of Krysttna Wituska, 1942-1944 (Detroit, 2006)..

    (Krystyna Wituska was imprisoned by the Germans and executed in a Berlin prison. Irene Tomaszewski is a Polish-Canadian journalist.)

    Irene Tomaszewski and Tecia Wierbowski, Code name Zegota; Rescuing Jews in Occupied Poland, 1942-1945; The Most Dangerous Conspiracy in Wartime Europe, (Santa Barbara, CA., 2010).

    (About the Polish underground organisation, funded by the Govt.-in-Exile, London, to rescue and hide Polish Jews.)

    John Wiernicki, War in the Shadow of Auschwitz: Memoirs of a Polish Resistance Fighter and Survivor of the Death Camps (Syracuse, N.Y., 2001).

    Thomas E. Wood and Stanislaw M. Jankowski, Karski. How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust, (New York, 1994).

    (Jan Karski, 1914-2000, see biographical note to his book: The Story of a Secret State, above.)

    (vii) The Warsaw Uprising of the Home Army against the Germans, Aug. 1 -Oct. 2 1944.

    Wlodzimierz Borodziej, The Warsaw Uprising of 1944, (Madison, WI, 2006)

    (This is a v. good, short study by a Polish historian; see review by Piotr Wrobel in Slavic Review, vol. 66, no. 3, fall 2007, p. 519.)

    Jan M. Ciechanowski, The Warsaw Rising of 1944, (London, New York, 1974).

    (The author, b. Poland 1931, a veteran of the Warsaw Uprising, condemns the Polish govt. and underground leadership for the decision to fight; a view not shared by J.K. Zawodny, below. The consenus of Polish historians on the 50th anniversary, 1994, was that the rising was doomed but unavoidable, given the circumstances of the time, but the itis still a contentious issue among Polish historians today.. There is now a Museum of the Warsaw Uprising in Warsaw, built on the initiative and with the support of Lech Kaczynski, when he was mayor of Warsaw and later president of Poland, 2005-2010. He died in the tragic plane crash at Smolensk airport on April 10, 2010, with his wife and 94 prominent Poles.Controversy over the causes of the crash dominated Polish politics in 2010, climaxing on the first anniversary, April 9-10, 2011.)

    Norman Davies, Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw, (London, 2003, New York, 2004).

    (Norman Davies, a Welshman b. 1940 in England, has been the most prominent British historian of modern Poland since publishing a history of the country in 2 vols. in 1980. This book is a great achievement and a most welcome one for the 60th anniversary of the rising in 2004. Written with the author's customary verve, the book is best in describing the street by street fighting in the city, but contains some errors and exaggerations elsewhere. His decision not to write out Polish names in full but give the first letter and the names in an appendix may make the work more accessible to English-language readers but is controversial. For a short, judicious review see Timothy Snyder "Pity the first ally," Times Literary Supplement Feb. 20, 2004, p. 13. The Polish edition, published in 2004, is more extensive. There is also a v. interesting Polish-language work on how the book was researched and written.)

    Janusz K. Zawodny, Nothing but Honour. The Story of the Warsaw Uprising, 1944, (Stanford, CA, 1978).

    (J. Zawodny, b. Warsaw, 1921, , is like Ciechanowski a veteran of the Uprising, but does not share the latter's negative evaluation. The book contains Zawodny's interviews with General Bor-Komorowski and George F. Kennan, former U. S. diplomat and expert on the USSR, which are valuable contributions to the subject. Zawodny also published a Polish- lang. collection of interviews on the rising with survivors, and the first scholarly study in English of the Soviet massacre of Polish prisoners of war in 1940, known as Katyn, in 1962..)

    (viii) Poles in WW II resistance movements outside Poland

    Witold Bieganski et al, Polish Resistance Movement in Poland and Abroad, 1939-1945 (Warsaw, 1987).

    (W. Bieganski is a Polish military historian; the book was published under certain political restrictions).

    (ix) Poles in allied armed forces, WWII

    Wladyslaw Anders, AN ARMY IN EXILE; The Story of the Second Polish Corps,( London, 1949, reprint, Knoxville, TN, 1981).

    (W. Anders, 1890-1970, was born in Russian Poland into a Polish, Lutheran family. He began his military career as a Tsarist army officer, served with distinction and was awarded the highest imperial decorations. He continued in thePolish army, where is 4 brothers also served; - was taken prisoner by the Soviets and imprisoned in Lviv, then Moscow, 1939-41. He was the commander of Polish army in the USSR, then in the Middle East, when it became the Polish 2nd Corps, later part of the British 8th Army, Italy. This is an abbreviated translation of the Polish original. On Anders; see also Harvey Sarner below.)

    George F. Cholewczynski, POLES APART. The Polish Airborne at the Battle of Arnhem, (New York, London, 1993).

    (An account of the brave but disastrous battle fought with the Germans by the Polish Airborne Brigade, dropped prematurely near Arnhem, Holland, on the orders of General Bernard Montgomery. See also Piekalkiewicz and Sosabowski, below.)

    Jerzy B. Cynk, HISTORY OF THE POLISH AIR FORCE 1918-1968, (Reading, 1972), ch. 5, pp. 156-208..

    (On J.Cynk see interwar Poland.).

    Akrady Fiedler, Squadron 303, (London, 1942; reprint USA, 2010).

    (On the most famous Polish unit in the R. A. F. -- whose no. 1 pilot was a Czech. Fiedler, b. 1894, was a Polish journalist, well known before the war for his travelogues.)

    Krzysztof Filipow and Zbigniew Wawer, Passerby, Tell Poland, (Warsaw, 1991).

    (A book on the Polish armed forces in the West with excellent illustrations.)

    Kenneth K. Koskodan, No Greater Ally. The Untold Story of Poland's Forces in World War II, Botley, U.K., Osprey, 2009.

    (A well written account with valuable eye witness stories, but full of avoidable, factual errors; critical reviews by Jacek Garlinski, Polish Review, v. LV, 2010. pp. 346-348, also and by Cienciala in the Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 2011..)

    Madej, Victor, The Polish 2nd Corps and the Italian Campaign, (Allentown, PA., 1984).

    (By a Polish-American military historian.)

    Peszke, Michael Alfred, "The Demise of the Polish Armed Forces in the West, 1945-1947," Polish Review v. LV 2010, no. 2, pp. 231-240

    (Review article of Polish-language books by Mieczyslaw Nurek and Jerzy Adam Radomski on this topic. Peszke is a retired Psychologist whose avocation is 20th c. Polish military history;on which he has published several English-language works.)

    Janusz Piekalkiewicz, Arnhem, (New York, 1976).

    (On the Polish parachute brigade's battle with the Germans, 1944. J. Piekalkiewicz is a Polish military historian living in the West. See also Cholewczynski book, above, and Sosabowski below.).

    Same, Cassino. Anatomy of a Battle, (London, 1980).

    (On the Polish 2nd Corps battles and victory at Monte Cassino, May 1944, which opened the land route to Rome for Allied armies.)

    General K. S. Rudnicki, THE LAST OF THE WAR HORSES. (London, 1974), ch. 29 ff.

    (Rudnicki, 1897-1995,, recounts his service in the Polish campaign of 1939, in the Polish Army, USSR, then Italy.)

    Harvey Sarner, General Anders and the Soldiers of the Second Polish Corps, (Brunswick Press, Cathedral City, CA, 1997).

    (H. Sarner, 1934-2007, a third generation American with Polish-Jewish roots, is known for his work to improve Polish-Jewish relations. This is a lively, informative and valuable study of the subject; some factual errors here and there do not detract from its value.)

    Stanislaw Sosabowski, Freely I Served, (Nashville, TN., 1982).

    (General Sosabowski, 1892-1967, was the commander of the Polish Parachute Brigade which fought in the West, notably at Arnhem, 1944; see Cholewczynski, Piekalkiewicz, above.)

    David R.Stefancic, ed., Armies in Exile: The Polish Struggle for Nation and Nationalism, East European Monographs Series, (New York, distr. Columbia University Press, 2005).

    (The last three essays deal with WW II; see review by Anita Shelton, H-Nationalism, Aug. 2006. Stefancic has also published a book on on the struggle for worker self-management and free trade unions in Poland.)

    Keith Sword, ed., General Sikorski: Soldier and Statesman, (London, 1990).

    (General Wladyslaw Sikorski, 1881-1944, was the Premier of the Polish Government- in-Exile, France, then U.K, and Commander-in-Chief of Polish Armed Forces. He died on July 4, 1943, in a plane crash off Gibraltar, the cause of which has not been determined so far. The late K. Sword was a British historian of modern Poland.)

    Jonathan Walker, Poland Alone: Britain, SOE and the Collapse of the Polish Resistance, 1944, (Stroud, U.K. History Press, 2008).

    (Critical review by Jacek Garlinski, Polish Review, v. LV, 2010, no. 3, pp.339-343.)

    Adam Zamoyski, THE FORGOTTEN FEW. The Polish Air Force in the Second World War, (London, 1995).

    (A good, popular account; Zamoyski ,b. New York 1949, lives in London. He, has written several works on Polish history; c.f. Olsen book.)


    (x) The Jewish Holocaust in German-Occupied Poland in WW II.

    A. General.

    Jacob Apenszlak et al, eds., THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY: An Account of the Martyrdom of Polish Jewry under the Nazi Occupation, (Roy Publishers, New York, 1943).

    (This is a contemporary account with illustrations. Roy was a Polish publishing firm.)

    Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, THE WARSAW GHETTO: A Christian's Testimony. Trans. by Stephen G. Cappellan (New York, 1988)

    (A moving account of Jewish Christians and Polish clergy in the Warsaw Ghetto by a fournding member of "Zegota," an underground organisation to help Jews funded by the Polish Govt.-in-Exile, London..Bartoszewski, who spent a few months in Auschwitz, was a dissident in Communist Poland, a Foreign Minister after the collapse of communism there in 1989, and contributed greatly to improving Polish-German relations, is the author of several books dealing with the German occupation of Poland.)

    Lucjan Dobroszycki, THE CHRONICLE OF THE LODZ GHETTO, 1941-1944, (New Haven, 1984).

    (Polish-born L. Dobroszycki worked in the Yivo Institute, New York. This is the most detailed study of the subject so far).

    same, SURVIVORS OF THE HOLOCAUST. A Portrait based on Jewish Community Records, (Armonk, N. Y., and London, UK, 1994).

    (Meticulous study with registration tables and dates.)

    Philip Friedman. MARTYRS AND FIGHTERS: The Epic of the Warsaw Ghetto, (New York, 1954).

    Bernard Goldstein, THE STARS BEAR WITNESS, (New York, 1949).

    (On the Jews of Warsaw under the German occupation , through spring 1943.)

    Yisrael Gutman, THE JEWS OF WARSAW, 1939-1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt, (trans. Ina Friedman, Bloomington, IN, 1982).

    (By a veteran of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, who became a famous Jewish historian; based on German, Jewish, and Polish sources. Critical of the Poles.)

    Richard C. Lukas, DID THE CHILDREN CRY? Hitler's War against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939-1945,( New York, 1994).

    (By a Polish-American historian; this is a collection of personal accounts by Polish Christians and Jews.)

    Gunnar S. Paulsson, Secret City. The Hidden Jews of Warsaw 1940-1945, (New Haven and London, 2002).

    (The author, son of a Polish Holocaust survivor, traces the unusual story of thousands of Warsaw Jews hidden outside the ghetto with the aid of a large network of ethnic Poles and assimilated Polish Jews.)

    Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, (Jefferson, NC, 1998), ch. 3, Jewish Collaboration.

    (On Jews who collaborated with Nazi and Soviet authorities; also on Polish help to Jews.)

    Bill Tammeus and Jacques Cukierkorn, They were just People; Stories of Rescue in Poland during the Holocaust (Columbia, MO, 2009.)

    (A collection of stories by Holocaust survivors hidden by Poles. The stories are based on personal interviews with the survivors and, where possible, their Polish saviors or the latters' descendents.)

    Leonard Tushnet, THE PAVEMENT OF HELL, (New York, 1972).

    (Historical-biographical sketches of the heads of Jewish Councils of Warsaw, Lodz, and Wilno.)


    B.The Memory of the Holocaust in Poland.

    Editorial Introduction.

    For many years, the Poles focused on the suffering of their own nationals, who lost an estimated 3 mln out of some 24 million ethnic Poles in World War II, and viewed the Jewish Holocaust in Poland --almost all of prewar Poland's 3,500,000 Jews were killed by the Germans -- as a topic set apart from the Polish trauma. (On the Holocaust in Poland, see Lecture Notes 16, Poland in WW II). Furthermore, some Poles viewed Jews as synonymous with communists because of their high visibility in the upper ranks of the prewar Polish Communist Party (illegal in Poland and dissolved by Stalin in 1938, after he ordered the murder of most of those who had obtained asylum in the USSR). In fact, the vast majority of Polish Jews were conservative and very religious. The prewar view revived when a few Jewish Poles became highly visible in the higher ranks of the Polish Workers' Party (PPR), later the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) and the security police. The abhorrent, prewar stereotype of "the Jewish Commune," as well as the medieval legend of Jewish use of children's blood to make matza (!), were used to rally anti-semitic mobs in several pogroms in early postwar Poland, notably the Kielce pogrom of July 4, 1946.

    Communist policy was to put communism in national Polish dress, not differeniate Christian and Jewish Poles, and repress the memory of the Jewish Holocaust. In 1968, however - after the defeat of Soviet-supported Arab states by Israel, the communist leadership used anti-semitism to fire Polish Jews from political, military, academic and other positions. This led to the loss of thousands of well educated Polish citizens who emigrated to Israel, the United States, and Western Europe..

    After the fall of Communism in 1989, Polish writers and historians devoted some attention to the Holocaust in Poland, but it was Jan Tomasz. Gross's book Neighbors; the destruction of the Jewish community of Jedwabne, Poland, Princeton, 2001, that stirred up a lively debate in Poland, see Antony Polonsky and Joanna B.Michlic, eds. The Neighbors Respond: the controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland, Princeton, 2004. An extensive debate also took place over Gross's follow-up book: Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland after Auschwitz New York, 2006; see also Tadeusz Stachurski, Difficult postwar years; Polish voices in debate over Jan T. Gross's book Fear, Warsaw, 2006 . Mainly as a result of these debates, the Holocaust is now part of the Polish school curriculum, although anti-Semitism still flourishes in some extreme nationalist-catholic media and football clubs, while anti-Semitic graffiti are sometimes written on walls..

    Most ethnic Poles were too terrified to risk their lives helping Jews, for which the German occupiers imposed a death penalty, but there were some who risked their lives and their families lives to do so.. Sept. 2008 saw the opening of a Broadway play "Irena's Vow," about Irena Gut-Opdyke who hid 12 Jews in the German officer's house where she worked as a housekeeper. In mid-November, 2008, President Lech Kaczynski decorated several dozen Poles whose parents had risked their lives to hide Jews, see The Washington Post, Nov. 17, 200). Irena Sandler, a social worker in Warsaw, helped save many Jewish children. A group of High School students in Union City, KS, inspired by their teacher, Norm Conard (KU 1992), researched her life. They wrote a play titled "Life in a Jar" - lst performed 2001,\ -because she kept the children's names on slips of paper in a jar, buried under a tree in her courtyard. Financed by businessman John Shuchart,.they travelled to visit her in Warsaw. She then received a very high decoration from the Polish government. On April 19, 2009, CBS TV showed a film: "The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler" (a Hallmark film directed by John Kent Harrison, based on the biography by , Anna Mieszkowska, The Mother of the Holocaust Children). A second TV film titled Irena Sendler, was shown on US PBS on May 1, 2011. Irena Sendler[1910-2008], a Polish Catholic and Social Worker in Warsaw, together with a few volunteers, saved 2,500 Jewish children, smuggling them out of the Warsaw Ghetto, after which a network of helpers placed them in Polish families; they were mostly boys while; many girls were hidden in convents. Magdalena Grodzka-Gutkowska also rescued children from the Warsaw Ghett0. She was honored at Yad Vashem, January 6, 2009, when she also met one of those she rescued, William Donat, who came from New York. (See, also About one third of the names of gentiles who helped Jews, recorded in the Yad Vashem Memorial and Museum in Jerusalem, are Polish, but many brave people still remain unknown.

    Michael C. Steinlauf, BONDAGE OF THE DEAD. Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust, Syracuse, NY., 1997.

    (Chapter 1 is a survey of Poland before the Holocaust; ch. 2. deals with Poles and Jews during the Holocaust. Ch. 3: Memory's Wounds; ch. 4. Memory Repressed: 1944-1968; ch. 5. Memory Expelled: 1968-1970; ch. 7. Memory Regained?: 1989-1995.

    Steinlauf is Senior Research Fellow at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York. As a Fulbright Fellow he was one of the first students allowed to study Jewish History in Poland, 1983-84. This is an excellent study of the topic.)

    Joshua D. Zimmerman, Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and Its Aftermath, (New Brunswick, 2003).

    (See Shimon Redlich review in Slavic Review, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 158-160.)

    C. Jewish Resistance in German-occupied Poland.

    Alfred Katz, POLAND'S GHETTOS AT WAR, (New York, 1978).

    (Resistance in the five major ghettos established by the Germans: Warsaw, Bialystok, Krakow, Wilno, and Lodz. The author is listed among Senior Faculty in CEEDat the Community College of Baltimore County.)

    Shmuel Krakowski, THE WAR OF THE DOOMED; Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944, trans. Orah Blaustein, (New York, 1984).

    (By a Jewish historian; based on German, Polish, Russian and Yiddish primary sources, also interviews with about 500 fighters; negative image of Poles.)

    Richard L. Rashke, ESCAPE FROM SOBIBOR, (Boston, 1982).

    (Based on eyewitness accounts of 18 survivors, later made into a film.)

    Jean-Francois Steiner, TREBLINKA, trans. Helen Weaver, (New York, 1994).

    (By a French historian; the story of the revolt and breakout from the camp.)

    Nechama Tec, DEFIANCE. The Bielski Partisans, (New York, Oxford, 1993, with later reprint).

    (Story of a Jewish partisan group in western Belorussia -- now Belarus --led by Tuve Bielski, and written on the basis of interviews with him by a survivor of the Holocaust, now a Sociologist in U. S. [For Nehama Tec, see: Polish-Jewish relations below] A film based on this book was screened in spring 2009. It should be noted that the Bielski partisans aimed to save Jewish lives; they did not fight the Germans but the police and other local units that worked for them. They at first cooperated with Polish underground forces, but later with Soviet partisans against the Poles..The Bielski brothers escaped with their families ahead of the Red Army and managed to settle in the US. For a review of the film and the Bielski saga by a historian with extensive knowledge of the subject, see Timothy Snyder in the New York Review of Books, April 30, 2009.)

    Isaac Zuckerman, ed., THE FIGHTING GHETTOS, trans and ed. Meyer Barkait, (Philadelphia, Pa., 1962).

    (Collection of memoirs and documents by survivors, mainly from Poland.)

    D. Jewish Memoirs and Diaries: Jewish life in German-occupied Poland.

    Editorial Note

    With a few exceptions, memoirs and studies of Jews in German -occupied Europe did not appear until the 1970s. In many cases, survivors felt guilty for surviving when millions died, while many Sabras (Jews born in Palestine, later Israel) condemned Jewish non-resistance to the Germans. It was only in the late 1960s and early 1970s that these attitudes began to fade leading to the publications of numerous memoirs and studies.


    Jack Kugelman and Jonathan Boyarin, trans. and eds., FROM A RUINED GARDEN: The Memorial Books of Polish Jewry, (New York, 1983; 2nd expanded edition Bloomington, IN 1998).

    (Condensed versions of over 100 memorials of Jewish communities in Poland written over 30 years).

    Joanna Bauman, WINTER IN THE MORNING; A Young Girl's Life in the Warsaw Ghetto and Beyond, 1939-1945, (London, 1986).

    Mary Berg, WARSAW GHETTO, A Diary, (New York, 1945).

    Halina Birenbaum, HOPE IS THE LAST TO DIE: A Personal Documentation of Nazi Terror, (New York, 1971).

    Adlina Blady Schweiger, I REMEMBER NOTHING MORE. The Warsaw Children's Hospital and Jewish Resistance, trans. Tasja Darowska and Danusia Stok, (New York, 1990).

    (On protecting sick Jewish children and fighting the Germans, with illustrations.)

    Tuwie Borzkowski, BETWEEN TUMBLING WALLS, (Israel, 1972).

    (On the author's experiences in the Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB, Jewish Fighting Organization, Warsaw Ghetto.)

    Janina David, A SQUARE OF SKY: Recollections of my Childhood, (New York, 1964)

    (Life in the Warsaw Ghetto.)..

    Same, A TOUCH OF EARTH. A Wartime Childhood, (New York, 1969).

    Alexander Donat, THE HOLOCAUST KINGDOM: A Memoir, (New York, 1965).

    (Llife in the Warsaw Ghetto.)

    Jack Eisner, THE SURVIVOR, ed. I. A. Leitner, (New York, 1980).

    (Autobiography which was adapted to a Broadway play and the movie, "War and Love." The author, who founded the Warsaw Ghetto Resistance Organisation, also founded the first Institute of Jewish Studiies at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.)

    Adolf Folkmann, THE PROMISE HITLER KEPT, as told to Stefan Szende, (New York, 1945).

    (An early, detailed account of the Holocaust; includes eastern Poland under Soviet occupation, 1939-41.)

    Sheva Glas-Wiener, CHILDREN OF THE GHETTO, (Fitzroy, Victoria, 1983).

    (Account of a ghetto in a Polish village outside Lodz, by the caretaker.)

    Raul Hilberg et al, eds., trans. Stanislaw Staron et al., THE WARSAW DIARY OF ADAM CZERNIAKOW: Prelude to Doom, (New York, 1978).

    (Adam Czerniakow, 1880-1942, was a Jewish politician in interwar Poland. He was appointed by the Germans head of the "Judenrat" [Jewish Council] which administered the Warsaw Ghetto. He refused to believe that the Germans intended to exterminate the Jews and committed suicide when they began to deport them to death camps in summer 1942. R. Hilberg is an authority on the Holocaust who has published several books on the subject.)

    Chaim A. Kaplan, SCROLL OF AGONY: The Warsaw Diary of Chaim A. Kaplan, (Bloomington, IN, 1999).

    (The author received a Talmudic education and was a teacher. He was born in what is today Gorodyshche,western Belarus, in 1880, moved to Warsaw around 1902 and is believed to have perished with his wife in Treblinka in Dec. 1942 or Jan. 1943. The diaries were saved by a friend, brought from Poland by a man named Wladyslaw Wojcek, when he emigrated to U.S., and were first published, by Abraham I..Katsh, ed., New York, 1965. Kaplan wrote about the Nazi conquest of Poland, Polish-Jewish relations, and life in the Warsaw Ghetto.)

    Hanna Krall, SHIELDING THE FLAME. An Intimate Conversation with Dr. Marek Edelman, The Last Surviving Leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, New York, 1986 (see also videotape:THE LONELY STRUGGLE. Marek Edelman. Last Hero of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, [1995] The Willy Lindwer Collection, cat. #657, 60 min. color; ERGO MEDIA Inc., P. O. Box 2037, Teaneck, N. J., 07666)

    (Hanna Krall b. Warsaw, 1935, is a Polish writer who survived the Holocust hidden by Poles and wrote a book about. Marek Edelman, 1919-2009. After the war, he studied cardiology and became a well known cardiologist. He fearlessly spoke his mind about the communist governments and party leaderships of Poland .)

    Halina Nelken with Alicja Nitecki, And Yet I am Here! (Amherst, Mass., 1999).

    (This is a memoir of the Krakow ghetto. H. Nelken (b. Poland, 1923, d. U.S. 2009) was an art historian. She survived the Plaszow, Auschwitz and Ravensbruck concentration camps; immigrated to the U.S. and lived in Acton, Mass. Alicja Nitecki, b. Poland, 1942, is an author and prof. of Eng. Literature at Bentley University, Walthan, Mass).

    Celel Perechodnik, Am I A Murderer? trans. by Frank Fox, (Greenwod Press, 1998).

    (The author was a small town Ghetto policeman. He tells the heart-breaking story of how the Germans emptied his ghetto; how he loaded his wife and daughter onto a death train; then hid in Warsaw and lived with this unbearable memory. NOTE:. The Fox translation differs considerably from the Polish original.)

    Oscar Pinkus, WOODEN SYNAGOGUES, (Cleveland, 1964).

    (A Jewish family's tale of survival.)

    Emanuel Ringelblum, NOTES FROM THE WARSAW GHETTO: The Journal of Emanuel Ringelblum, ed. and trans. Jacob Sloan, (New York, 1958);

    (Emanuel Ringelblum, 1900-1944, was a Jewish historian, activist, teacher, organizer of Jewish resistance and of the Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto. After the Ghetto Uprising, he was hidden byi a Polish fmaily, then denounced and executed along with his family and his Polish hosts. He tried to give a balanced view of the Poles, but believed they could have given more help to Jews.)

    Leyb Rochman, THE PIT AND THE TRAP: A Chronicle of Survival, (New York, 1982).

    (Llife in the Minsk-Mazowiecki ghetto, 1943-44.)

    Rutka's Notebook, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 2012.

    This is the diary of Rutka Laskier, called "The Polish Anne Frank." It was hidden by a Polish acquaintance, Stanislawa Sapinska, whose nephew persuaded her to give it to Yad Vashem, which published it. See Rory McCarthy, "Diary of 'Polish Anne Frank' published 64 years on," The Guardian, 6 June, 2007.

    Avraham Tory, SURVIVING THE HOLOCAUST. The Kovno Ghetto Diary, edited with introd, by Martin Gilbert, trans. Jerzy Michalowicz, Notes Dina Porat, (Cambridge MASS, and London, UK, 1990).

    (The author, a Zionist, escaped from the Kovno -now Kaunas -Ghetto, Lithuania, in 1943. Sir Martin Gilbert is a prominent British historian, biographer of Winston S. Churchill, author of many books on 20th century European history, and editor of the Holocaust Encylopedia..

    Bruno Shatyn, A PRIVATE WAR. Surviving in Poland on False Papers, 1941- 1945, trans. Oscar E. Swan, foreword by Norman Davies, (Detroit, 1985).

    (The derring dos of a Polish Jew masquerading as a Christian with the help of Polish friends.)

    Ana Vinocur, A BOOK WITHOUT A TITLE, (New York, 1976).

    (Memories of the Lodz ghetto and Auschwitz.)

    David Wdowinski, AND WE ARE NOT SAVED, (New York, 1963).

    (An account of life in the Warsaw Ghetto and of the Ghetto Uprising by a survivor.)

    Leon W. Wells, THE JANOWSKA ROAD, (New York, 1963).

    (By a survivor of the German concentration camp at Janowska.)

    Liliana Zuker-Brajnowska, LILIANA'S JOURNAL; Warsaw, 1939-1945, (New York, 1980).

    (Six years in the life of a Jewish gir in wartime Poland.)

    Michael Zylberberg, A WARSAW DIARY. 1939-1945, (London, 1969).

    (By a survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of spring 1943 and the Home Army Warsaw Uprising of August-September 1944.)

    E. Polish-Jewish Relations in German-occupied Poland and the Policy of the Polish Government-in-Exile on the German Genocide of the Polish Jews.

    Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, "Polish-Jewish Relations in occupied Poland, 1939-1945, " ch. 11 in: Chimen Abramsky et al eds., THE JEWS IN POLAND, (Oxford, 1986), pp. 147-160.

    (Wladyslaw. Bartoszewski, b. Warsaw, 1922, was a founding member and active participant in "Zegota," the Polish underground organization established in fall 1942 and funded by the Polish government, London, to help save Polish Jews . He survived Auschwitz and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944; was imprisoned by the communist govt., 1946-48, 1949-54, then "rehabilitated;" taught at the Catholic University Lublin and in Germany, also in the underground Association of Academic Courses 1970s. He was an active member of Solidarity, interned 1981-82; Polish ambassador to Austria, 1990, Polish Foreign Minister, 2000. He has authored many works on Polish-Jewish relations and allied subjects.).

    David Engel, IN THE SHADOW OF AUSCHWITZ. The Polish Government-in- Exile and the Jews, 1939-1942, (Chapel Hill and London, 1987).

    (D. Engel was then teaching Jewish history at the University of Tel Aviv.)

    same: FACING A HOLOCAUST. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Jews, 1943-1945, (Chapel Hill and London, 1993).

    (The author charges the Polish government with lack of concern for and aid to the Jews; see reviews of each book by Anna M. Cienciala:AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW, April 1989, pp. 485-87, and INTERNATIONAL HISTORY REVIEW, Feb. 1995, p. 99).

    Israel Gutman, "Polish and Jewish Historiography on the Question of Polish-Jewish Relations during World War II," in Jews in Poland., ch. 15, pp. 177-189.

    (Historian I. Gutman. b. Warsaw, 1923,is a veteran of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. His last known position was Advisor to the Yad Vashem.).

    Samuel D. Kassow, Who will Write our History? Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Onyg Shabes Archive, Bloomington, IN., 2007.

    (Kassow paints a fascinating picture of Ringelblum's life as part of Jewish life in interwar Poland; of the people involved in collecting the documents; of Warsaw in WWII, and of the Ghetto. See informative review by Jonathan Boyarin, Slavic Review, Winter 2009, v. 68, n.4, pp. 962-963.)

    Teresa Prekerowa, "The Relief Council for Jews in Poland, 1942-1945," Jews in Poland, ch. 12, pp. 161-176.

    (T. Prekerowa, a member of the Polish underground organisation to help Jews, "Zegota," hid Jews during the war and later became a historian of the Jewish Holocaust in Poland. See also:

    Videotape: ZEGOTA. A Time to Remember. Discussion and Guide, video 51. 46 min; includes different views on Polish help to Jews by T. Prekerowa and Y. Gutman, also appearances by Marek Edelman. Produced by: Documentaries International, Ltd., [c. 1995?] Film and Video Fdn, 1880 K Street N. W. suite 1120, Washington, D. C., 20006; tel: 202 429-9320; fax: 202 659-2667.)

    Richard D. Lukas, THE FORGOTTEN HOLOCAUST. The Poles under the German Occupation, Lexington, Ky., 1986, revised edition 1998.. ch. five.

    (This book led to a bitter polemic in the SLAVIC REVIEW, in 1987, betweem Lukas and the Israeli historian, David Engel .On R. D. Lukas see section A above).

    Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust. Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, Jefferson, NC, and London, 1998; see ch. 3, Jewish Collaboration, pp. 35-76 (pp. 35-48 deals with the interwar period; Soviet occupation, pp. 48-57, postwar years, pp. 58-66; German occupation, pp. 66-76..)

    (T. Piotrowski is a Professor of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, Manchester, NH. This is a pioneering book based on primary and secondary materials. See also his book: Vengence of the Swallows, Jefferson, NC, 1995, on his family's saga under German, Soviet and Ukrainian terror and their emigration to the U. S. The First Polish Republic was the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, established in 1569, partitoned in 1772, 1793,1795; the Second Polish Republic existed from Nov. 1918 to July 1945, when the Western Powers recognized the communist-dominated government imposed on Poland by Stalin; the Third Republic began with the collapse of communism in Poland, June 1989).

    Shimon Redlich, Together and Apart in Brzezany; Poles, Jews, and Ukrainians, 1919-1945 (Bloomington, IN, 2002).

    (The Redlich family were saved by Polish and Ukrainian neighbors; Shimon became an Israaeli ambassador to post-communist Poland; see review by Karen Gabert in East European Quarterly, vol. 37, no.2, summer 2004, pp. 205-214.)

    Emanuel Ringelblum, POLISH-JEWISH RELATIONS DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR, trans. Dafna Allon et al.,( Jerusalem, 1974).

    (On Ringelblum see Jewish Memoirs and Diaries, and Kassow above.)

    Jaroslaw M. Rymkiewicz, THE FINAL STATION; UMSCHLAGPLATZ, trans. Nina Taylor, (New York, 1994).

    (A Polish Christian reconstructs the Jewish Holocaust in Poland, and examines Polish attitudes to it.

    Michael C. Steinlauf, Bondage of the Dead. Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust, (Syracuse, N. Y., 1997).

    (Steinlauf was then a Senior Research Fellow at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York. He shows different Polish attitudes toward the Jewish Holocaust in Poland, from suppression in favor of the history of national suffering under the German occupation, the dominant trend before 1989, to efforts at integration into Polish national memory after the collapse of communism.)

    Thomas E. Wood, Stanislaw M. Jankowski, foreword by Elie Wiesel, Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust, (New York, 1994).

    (T. E. Wood, b. 1963, and St. J. Jankowski, b. 1945, give a good account of a remarkable man,Jan Karski, 1914- 2000, who brought his eye-witness description of a death camp for Jews in German-occupied Poland to the Polish Govenment-in-Exile, London, Nov. 1942. This led to the Polish Government's appeal to other Allied governments to act to stop the genocide, but the appeal fell on deaf ears. Karski was also sent to the US and saw President Roosevelt whom he tried but failed to interest in Polish underground resistance against the Germans and in their genocide of the Jews.. His book on the Polish underground, The Story of a Secret State, came out in the U.S. at that time, Boston, 1944 with a later reprint; the last reprint is by, Penguin, London, 2011; see reviews in British press May 2011. He also wrote The Great Powers and Poland, 1919-1945 (Lanham, MD., 1985), which is good on the WWII period but with a bias in the first part of the book against the Polish governments of 1926-39; see Cienciala in American Historical Review, v. 90, no.5, Dec. 1985, pp,1231-1232.. He taught for many years at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.)

    (x) The Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland, 1939-41.

    Jan Tomasz Gross, Revolution from Abroad. The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, (Princeton, N. J., 1988, 2nd revised ed. 2002).

    (A sociological-historical study of Soviet policy and actions in former eastern Poland, 1939-41. Jan Tomasz Gross, b. in Poland c. 1940 and educated there, emigrated to the U.S. after the anti-semitic government campaign in Poland, 1967-68. At the time of publication, he was teaching at New York University.)

    Irena Grudzinska-Gross and Jan T Gross, eds., WAR THROUGH CHILDRENS' EYES. The Soviet Occupation of Poland and the Deportations, 1939-41, (Stanford, CA, 1981).

    (Irena. Grudzinska-Gross -- then wife of Jan T. Gross --taught comparative literature at New York University. These are translated excerpts of children's descriptions of their experiences written after their exodus with the Polish Army from the USSR to Iran in 1942. They are preserved in the Wladyslaw Anders collection in thearchives of the Hoover Institute, Stanford, CA.)

    K. S. Rudnicki, THE LAST OF THE WAR HORSES, (London, 1972).

    (General K. S. Rudnicki fought in the 1939 Polish-German war; ch. 10-13, deal with author's work in Polish resistance under Soviet occupation; later he escaped to fight in the West and served in the Polish Army in W.Europe.)

    Keith Sword, ed., The Soviet Takeover of the Polish Eastern Provinces, 1939-41, (New York, 1991).

    (The late K. Sword was a British historian of Poland. The book has chapters on Poles, Ukrainians, Belorussians, also on the Baltic States.)

    Same, ed., DEPORTATION AND EXILE. Poles in the Soviet Union, 1939-48, (Basingstoke, UK, 1994).

    (ch. 1, deals with Soviet deportations of Poles to USSR; both books were written before Russian documents became accessible.)


    (xi) Poles, Jews, Lithuanians, Belorussians and Ukrainians in the USSR, 1939-45/48.

    Jozef Czapski, THE INHUMAN LAND, (New York, 1952).

    (A classic description of conditions in Soviet prison camps by an ex-prisoner-of war in the USSR, the Polish poet, and painter, Jozef Czapski, 1896-1993. He was taken prisoner by the Red Army; handed over to the NKVD; held in the Starobielsk POW camp; survived -- due to a request by the Italian Embassy, through the German Embassy, Moscow --the NKVD mass murder of Polish POWs and jailed prisoners in 1940; joined the Polish 2nd Corps in Middle East, then, Italy; chose exile and lived in the Institut Litteraire (Polish Literary Institute, established by Jerzy Giedroyc),Paris, until his death.)

    THE DARK SIDE OF THE MOON, preface by T. S. Elliot, (London, 1946; New York, 1947).

    (Anonymous; one of the first books on the Soviet prison and labor camps; based on data from prisons, camps, personal accounts.)

    Norman Davies and Antony Polonsky, eds., JEWS IN EASTERN POLAND AND THE USSR, 1939-46, (New York, 1991).

    (Includes studies of Jews in the Polish Communist-led army formed in the USSR in 1943.)

    Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski, A WORLD APART, (London, 1951, 1986, reprinted by Penguin Books, London, New York, 1996).

    (G. Herling-Grudzinski, b. Poland, 1913, d. Naples, Italy, 2000, was a prominent Polish writer who lived for decades in Naples, Italy. He was, for many years, closely involved with the Polish cultural monthly published in Rome, then Paris, Kultura.

    This powerfully written memoir tells of the author's imprisonment in a Soviet labor camp, describing the terrible conditions and the people he observed there. The author of the blurb on the back cover of the the 1996 Penguin edition could not have read the book carefully. He/she cites Herling's description of how a man poured boiling water over himself -- to avoid going to the" gas chamber." There were no gas chambers in Soviet labor camps; overwork, malnutrition, disease and starvation were the main killers there. Men would do great harm to themselves to get into the camp hospital, where they could enjoy a short respite from murderous labor and malnutrition.)

    Ruth Turkow Kaminska, I DON'T WANT TO BE BRAVE ANY MORE, (Washington, D. C., 1978).

    (The story of a Polish-Jewish couple who were imprisoned in Soviet labor camps; the author's mother was Ida Kaminska, 1899-1981,the most famous actress of the Yiddish Theater in Poland. She tried and failed to start a Yiddish theater in New York ater the war and starred in a film about the arrest of Jews in a Czechoslvoak village in WWII.)

    Dov Levin, THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS. Eastern European Jewry under Soviet Rule, 1939-1941, trans. Naftali Greenwood, Preface by Mordechai Altshuler, (Philadelphia, Jerusalem, 1996).

    (The author cites personal memoirs and letters to show why Jews welcomed Soviet rule, and why some cooperated with Soviet authorities in tracking down and arresting Poles, actions deeply resented by the Polish population. He notes that Soviet authorities also arrested and deported Zionists, including Menahem Begin, 1913-1992, who survived to leave the USSR with the Anders Army in summer 1942, stayed in Palestine to fight the British and became Prime Minister of Israel, 1977-83. Compare this book with Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, below.)

    Paul Robert Magocsi, Ukraine. A History, (Seattle WA, 1996), ch. 46, 47, deal with western Ukraine in WW II., cf. with Piotrowski below.

    Tadeusz M. Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, (Jefferson, NC and London, 1998).

    (Piotrowski, b. in former eastern Poland, 1940 --a professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire --applies the word Holocaust to Poles, Jews, Belorussians, Lithuanians and Ukrainians living in former Poland (for those chapters see section xi on Poles and non-Polish nationalities in WW II, below). In ch. 1, 2, he gives a brief but telling description of Soviet and Nazi policy in Polish lands, and of the Poles who collaborated with Nazi, but mostly with Soviet occupants.

    The book is especially useful for little known or unknown cases of Jewish collaboration with German and Soviet authorities; for Polish and Belorussian conflicts and sometimes cooperation with the Germans against the Soviets; for Lithuanian crimes against Poles and Jews; and for the Ukrainian UPA "ethnic cleansing" (massacres) of Poles in Volhynia. There are some useful documents in the annexes.Ssee also, same, ed., Genocide and Rescue in Wolyn: Recollections of the Ukrainian Nationalist Ethnic Cleansing Campaign against the Poles in World War II, Jefferson, N.C, 2000.)

    Same: Vengeance of the Swallows: memoir of a Polish family's ordeal under Soviet aggression, Ukrainian ethnic cleansing and Nazi enslavement, and their emigration to America, (Jefferson, N.C, 1995).

    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations, (New Haven, London,2003); ch. 4. The Second World War and the Vilnius Question (1939-1945), pp. 90-104; ch. 8. The Ethnic Cleansing of Southeastern Poland, pp. 179-201.

    The aiuthor teaches East European History at Yale University. In ch. 4, he gives brief, judicious and balanced accounts of Lithuania under Soviet, German and again Soviet rule. In ch. 8, he does the same with Ukrainian terror against the Poles and Polish reactions, 1943-45. The book received the AHA George Louis Beer award in 2003 and the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences Halecki Prize in 2004.).

    Same, Bloodlands. Europe Between Hitler and Stalin (New York, 2011).

    (A well written, scholarly account of the terrible suffering of Belarusians, Jews, Poles, Russians and Ukrainians carried out by both Hitler and Stalin. Snyder points out that most of the Jews murdered by the Germans lived and died in what was former eastern Poland, now western Belarus and western Ukraine, plus central and southern Ukraine. A 2nd, revised edition is expected in 2012.)

    Keith Sword, DEPORTATION AND EXILE, (ch. 2-7) see section x above.

    Aleksander Wat, My Century: The Odyssey of a Polish Intellectual, ed and trans. Richard Lourie, foreword by Czeslaw Milosz, (Berkeley, CA, 1988).

    (Aleksander Wat [real name: Chwat], 1900-1967, a prominent Polish-Jewish poet and writer who was a communist sympathizer before the war, but abandoned communism when imprisoned in the USSR He returned to Poland after the war, but emigrated to Paris in 1959 and died there. This is a translation of his remarkable memoirs as told to and recorded by the Polish poet, Czeslaw Milosz ,1911-2004, Nobel Prize for Poetry, 1908. The memoirs include fascinating accounts of his stays in Kazakhstan and Soviet prisons during World War II.)

    XIa. The massacre of the Jews of Jedwabne, 10 July 1941.

    Jan Tomasz Gross, Neighbors, (Princeton 2001, Penguin 2002).

    (Basing his work on two near-contemporary accounts by Jewish survivors, the author claims that about half of the male Polish population of of the samll market town of Jedwabne in the Lomza region of northeastern Poland, murdered 1,6000 Jews, mostly by burning them in a barn. The book set off a wide ranging debate after its publication in Poland in spring 2000, with some critics denying the deed could have been done by Poles, while others accepted Gross's acccount. Later research shows that some 600 Jews lived in Jedwabne at this time and some 44 Poles were involved in the German-planned massacres of Jews in Jedwabne. There were similar massacres of Jews in neighboring towns.)

    Translations of selected items from the debate in Poland, with a short selection of the debate outside it, are to be found in: Antony Polonsky and Joanna B. Michlic, eds., The Neighbors Respond. The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland, Princeton, Princeton, 2004. This is an excellent, judicious selection by two specialists, with good introductions to each section. Polonsky is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Washington, D.C. Michlic was working at Brandeis at this time.

    For an evaluation of the two volume Polish language collection of documents and essays on Jedwabne published by the Polish Institute of National Memory, Warsaw, Nov. 2002, see: Anna M. Cienciala, "The Jedwabne Massacre. Update and Memory," Polish Review, vol. 48, no. 1, 2003, pp. 49-72;corrections at end of P.R. no. 4, 2003 .This article, along with an earlier one on the period 1939-41, can be accessed at the end of Lecture Notes no. 16, Eastern Europe in World War II. The Polish Review is to be avaialbe on J-Stor i 2012 or 2013.)


    Editorial note:

    The name KATYN now stands not only for the best known execution site near Smolensk Russia, bu als for two other execution sites where, on Stalin's orders, the NKVD, murdered 14, 552 Polish prisoners of war from three special camps in the USSR; they were murdered at Katyn, Kalinin/Tver and Kharkiv in spring 1940. The massacres also included 7, 305 prisoners executed in NKVD prisons in western Belorussia and in Ukraine at this time, for a total of 21,857 (NKVD figure). The burial places in Belarus remain unknown.. For these figures, generally accepted as correct, see: " Note of KGB chief, A. Shelepin to N. Khrushchev, March 9, 1959, " in: Anna M. Cienciala et al., below. The great Polish film director, Andrzej Wajda, whose father was murdered in Kharkiv, made a very moving film, "Katyn," first shown in Warsaw and Moscow 2007, then Moscow, April 2010; available on DVD in U.S..

    It should be noted that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the victims were by no means all officers. Most of the latter, however, were reserve officers, including many highly educated men, including lawyers, teachers, and several hundred physicians. According to NKVD figures, of the POWs in the three special camps, just under 5,000, or aboout 30%, were rank-and-file police and gendarmes. Of the identified names of goal prisoners murdered in Ukraine, the largest group consisted of policemen.)


    Vladimir Abarinov, THE MURDERERS OF KATYN, Foreword and Chronology by Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, (New York, 1993).

    (V. Abarinov is a Russian journalist who then wrote for the Literaturnaia Gazeta. This is a translation of his Katynskii Labirint, a rather disorganized account based on Soviet archival documents and interviews; on I. C. Pogonowski, see Part I, Historical Atlases.)

    P. M. H. Bell, JOHN BULL AND THE BEAR. British Public Opinion, foreign policy and the Soviet Union, 1941-1945, London, 1996.

    (Ch. 4. Case Study 1: The Katyn Graves Revealed, 1943, pp. 109-127, gives an excellent overview of British reactions to Katyn. P. M. H. Bell, is Professor Emeritus of the Dept. of History, Liverpool University, England, and author of several books on 20th century Europe; he lives in London.)

    Anna M. Cienciala, Natalia S. Lebedeva, Wojciech Materski, eds., Katyn: A Crime Without Punishment (Annals of Communism;Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn., 2007, appeared end Jan. 2008; reprint with corrections, 2009).

    This is a selection of 122 mostly Russian documents on the Katyn massacre, translated into English from the Polish and Russian-language volumes co-edited by Lebedeva and Materski (see: Note on Documents). Pt.I, covers Polish-Russian/Soviet Relations through March 5 1940, when the Politburo of the Soviet Communist Party signed Lavrenty P. Beria's "resolution" to shoot the Polish prisoners of war, as well as those held in prisons, as unregenerate enemies of the Soviet system.. Pt. II, covers the execution of prisoners from the three special NKVD camps in spring 1940; pt. III, covers the period from spring 1940 through 2006, and examines the question why all Soviet governments blamed the Germans for the crime until the last Soviet President, Mikhail S. Gorbachev, allowed a public admission of Soviet guilt on 13 April 1990.

    After the collapse of the USSR in late Dec. 1991, Russian Federation President, Boris N. Yeltsin, allowed the publication of the 1940 Politburo decision on 14 Oct. 1992 and other key documents on Katyn, verified copies of which were handed over to Poland.. No Russian government has so far made an official apology to the Polish nation, but the Polish Premier Donald Tusk met with Russian Premier Vladimir Putin at Katyn on April 9, 2010, and both made conciliatory speeches. After the death of Polish President Lech Kaczynski, his wife, and 94 prominent Poles in a crash at Smolensk airport on April 10, 2010 (they were going to attend a separate, Polish ceremony at nearby Katyn), Russian President Dmitri Medvedev stated that Stalin and Soviet officials issued the order to shoot the Polish prisoners. The Russian Communist Party, however, continues to insist that the Germans murdered the Polish prisoners at Katyn and that all the published documents are fakes.. The Russian Duma voted ovewhelmingly on Nov. 27, 2010, that Stalin ordered the murders and stated of the victims that "History has rehabilitated them." Both the Polish government and the Russian association "Memorial," however, insist on the legal rehabilitation of each victim; the naming of all those involved in the mass murder of Poles in 1940; and public access to all the documents collected by the Soviet investigation, 1991-2004, as well as the publication of the justification for closing down the investigation in fall 2004. .

    With a few exceptions, the documents in this volume were selected from the Polish and Russian lanaguage volumes (listed in "Note on Documents," also in the note to Lebedeva's article below), and translated by Marian Schwartz. The Introductions to each Part were written by Cienciala, who also added new material to the existing notes, Polish biographies, and information on Polish parties and organisations. The volume also includes maps and aerial photographs of the murder sites, with notes by the pre-eminent specialist in this field, Waclaw Godziemba-Maliszewski. Unfortunately, they were not printed on glossy paper because the press lacked the necessary funds.)

    Natalia S. Lebedeva, "The Katyn Tragedy," International Affairs, (Moscow, 1990, no. 6), pp. 98-113.

    (First Eng.- lang. publication based on Russian archival documents, written by the leading historian of Katyn,. Natalia S. Lebedeva, b. Moscow, 1936, who found most of the documents. [Russian original published at same time in Mezhdunarodnoe Otnosheniia, 1990, no. 6].This article gives an excellent account of the prisoners and their fate, but was published before the declassification in October 1992 of the Politburo decision of March 5, 1940, to shoot all the prisoners.

    Lebedeva, a member of the Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, went on to publish: Katyn. Prestuplenie protiv chelovechestva [Katyn. A Crime against Humanity] ( Moscow, 1994). The Polish edition: Katyn. Zbrodnia przeciw ludzkosci, (Warsaw, 1998), is the translation of a 1991 mss. so must be read with the Supplement-- published by the same publisher, Bellona -- which summarizes the Politburo documents released in 1992 .She went on to co-edit with Prof. Wojciech Mateerski and other Polish and Russian scholars, 2 Russian volumes of documents (Moscow, 1997, 2001) and 4 Polish volumes, Warsaw, 1995-2006. The fourth and appeared in April 2007. The second Russian volume on the Survivors, the Coverup and its Unraveling, was severely reduced from Lebedeva's original work for political reasons.

    It should be noted that two Russian professors have also published important Russian-language works on Katyn: Inessa Iazhborovskaia and Valentina Parsadanova.

    It should also be noted that Dr. Aleksandr Gurianov, Coordinator of Polish affairs in the" Memorial" Association, which has been working for years to uncover and publicise Stalinist crimes, has published many articles in Polish and Russian, and is a contributor to and co-editor of the Polish series of documenatry publications, Karta, Warsaw.

    Joseph Mackiewicz, THE KATYN WOOD MURDERS. (London, 1951).

    (Jozef Mackiewicz, 1902-1985, was a well known Polish journalist and writer from Wilno/Vilnius who viewed the Katyn murder site in spring 1943. A declared anti-Communist, he was suspected of collaborating with the German occupiers of Wilno -- now Vilnius -- in WWII, but in fact worked for Polish underground resistance and visited Katyn with the approval of the local Armia Krajowa (A.K.=Home Army) command in Wilno. After the war, he was called a traitor by the Polish communist govenment; chose exile, and settled in Munich,West Germany.)

    Allen Paul, KATYN. Stalin's Massacre and the Seeds of Polish Resurrection, (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1996; earlier edition, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991; Polish edition, 2007; 2nd U.S. edition, and 2n Polish edition 2010).

    (This is a well written -- though occasionally inaccurate -- account of the history of Polish-Soviet relations and the Katyn crime. This is treated as background to the focus of the book: the account of the moving personal memories of the relatives of three Polish officer victims, now living in the U. S. Allen Paul is an American free lance researcher-writer; he received a high decoration for the book from the Polish government and was invited to fly with Polish Premier Donald Tusk to his meeting with Russian Premier Vladimir Putin at Katyn on 7 April 2010. He was also invited by President Lech Kaczunski to fly with him to Smolensk, on the way to a Polish celebration of the 70th anniversary of the murder at Katyn, on 10 Apri but declined. All 96 passengers, including L. Kaczynski, his wife, and manuy prominent Poles, died in the tragic crash of their plane at Smolensk April three days later.)

    David Remnick, LENIN'S TOMB. The Last Days of the Soviet Empire, (New York, 1993), ch. 1, The Forest Coup.

    (D. Remnick, b. Hackensack, N. Y., 1958, was then the Moscow correspondent of the Washington Post. Here he gives the account of Col. Aleksander Tretetsky, of the Soviet Military Prosecutor's Office, on the exhumation of the remains of Polish police and gendarmes from the Ostashkov camp . They wre executed in the nearby NKVD prison in Kalinin/Tver and buried at nearby Mednoe. Tretetsky cites interviews with living NKVD participants.

    In the prize winning BBC historical TV film, "Behind Closed Doors. Stalin, the Nazis and the West," made by famous British TV documentarist, Laurence Rees, the aged, former NKVD chief of the Kalinin/Tver region, Tokarev, is shown speaking (1991) on a videotape with a Soviet Prosecutor about the murder of the Ostashkov prisoners in the NKVD jail. One of his statements, that the chief executioner,.Blokhin, committed suicide, is incorrect; Blokhin died in his bed;. see biogr. note on Blokhin in Cienciala et al., eds.,Katyn. A Crime Without Punishment.)


    Solomon W. Slowes, edited by Wladyslaw T. Bartoszewski, THE ROAD TO KATYN. A Soldier's Story, (Oxford, 1992).

    (Memoirs of a Polish-Jewish officer, a doctor, who survived. It is estimated, on the basis of names and patronymics --noted in NKVD records-- that about 10% of the Polish officers murdered by the NKVD in spring 1940 were Jews who served mainly as army doctors. The American specialist on this subject is Dr. Simon Schochet (b. Lodz, Poland, 1926), survivor of Dachau, Professor Emeritus of Miami University, Oxford, OH., and Yeshiva University, New York; he resides in Brooklyn Heights, N. Y. )


    Robert Szymczak, "A Matter of Honor: Polonia and the Congressional Investigation of the Katyn Forest Massacre," Polish American Studies, vol. 41, no. 1, Spring 1984, pp. 25-65.

    (Szymczak, a specialist on 20th c. Polish-American history, teaches at Pennsylvania State University, Beaver Lake, PA. This is the best study on the subject; it is based on U. S. and Polish-American sources).

    Same, "The Vindication of Memory: the Katyn Case in the West, Poland, and Russia, (1952-2008)," Polish Review, v. LIII [53], 2008, no. 4, pp. 419-444.

    (An excellent review of the history by an expert.)

    J. K. Zawodny, DEATH IN THE FOREST. The Story of the Katyn Forest Massacre, (Notre Dame, IN, 1962, and reprints).

    (Janusz K. Zawodny, b. Poland, 1921, a Sociologist and Historian, fought in the Warsaw Uprising, 1944, and authored the first scholarly book on the subject. This classic study is based on documents of the Congressional Commission of Inquiry, 1951-52, a Polish government collection of data, also personal accounts which were published in roneo form in London in 1946. The book is still an excellent and introduction to the Katyn topic.

    (xiii) THE POLISH QUESTION IN WORLD WAR II (Diplomatic History).

    A. Surveys:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The View from Poland," in: Arnold A. Offner and Theodore A. Wilson, Victory in Europe 1945. From World War to Cold War, (Lawrence, KS., 2000), pp. 47-102.

    (This is a brief outline of the topic. Unfortunately, the author did not catch a couple of errors which crept in, unnoticed, in the course of many revisions. On p. 59, line 3 from bottom states that Polish Premier Mikolajczyk learned, when in Moscow Oct. 1944, that Stalin's demand for Konigsberg "had not been granted. " - when it had been i nformally agreed at the Big Three Conference, Tehran, Nov-Dec. 1943. On p. 65, end of par. from p. 64, states that the secret frontier treaty between the PKWN (Polish Committee of National Liberation) and the Soviet leadersw as signed in late July 1945, when it should be late July 1944. There are also some typographical errors.)

    Same, "Polish Foreign Policy in World War II; Military Realities versus Polish Psychological Realities," in: John S. Micgiel and Piotr W.Wandycz, eds., Reflections on Polish Foreign Policy (Conference Papers, Nov. 17, 2005; Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, New York, 2007), pp.89-139.

    [Thse papers, read at a conference organized jointly by the Jozef Pilsudski Institute and the Columbia University Institute on East Central Europe --who are also the joint publishers --discuss Polish foreign policy from the pre-partition period through 2005.)

    John L. Harper and Andrew Parlin, THE POLISH QUESTION DURING WORLD WAR II, Foreign Policy Institute, Case Studies no. 15, (Washington, D. C., 1990).

    (John L. Harper was then Assoc. Professor of European studies and U. S. foreign policy at the Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Andrew Parlin went on to work for Oeschle International Advisors, Boston. This is a textbook for courses on the history international relations; it gives good, brief, summaries of the discussions on Poland at Tehran and Yalta, but contains numerous errors in background information on Poland and fails to convey the dilemmas faced by Polish policy makers.)

    Jan Karski, THE GREAT POWERS AND POLAND, 1919-1945, (Lanham, MD; London, 1985.)

    (Jan. Karski, 1914-2000, gave a personal eyewitness account of German genocide of Jews in Poland in a report on the situation when he was sent --for the second time -- as a courier by the Polish underground to the Polish govt.then in London,in Nov. 1942. He went on to study and teach Political Science in Washington, D. C. The author's interpretation of Polish foreign policy in the interwar period shows a strong negative bias, but he is an excellent guide to the wartime period. The book is based predominantly on published sources. He also wrote the book The Polish Underground State in New York, 1944.)

    John Coutovidis and Jaime Reynolds, POLAND 1939-1947, (Leicester, U.K, and New York, 1986).

    (The two British historians based their work mainly on English archival sources and are very critical of the policies of the Polish government in London. Compare with Cienciala articles above and in section B, below).

    Ito Takayuki, "The Genesis of the Cold War. Confrontation over Poland, 1941- 1944," in: Nagai Yonosouke and Iriye Akira, THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR IN ASIA, (New York, 1977).pp. 147-202.

    (This is a v.good study based on sources accessible to the author at the time. Other historians have argued that the genesis of the Cold War was the Western-Soviet Confrontation over Germany after the war.)

    B. The Soviet Union and Poland in World War II.

    Wladyslaw Anders, An Army in Exile. The Story of the Polish Second Corps, (London, 1949, reprinted Nashville, Tenn., 1981).

    (On W. Anders, see section viii above).

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Activities of Polish Communists as a Source for Stalin's Policy Toward Poland in World War II," International History Review, vol. VII, no. 1, Feb. 1985, pp. 129-145.

    (Based on sources available to the author at the time. Archival Polish communist documents became available in Warsaw after 1989 and Comintern documents became accessible in Moscow in 1992.)

    Same: "The Question of the Polish-Soviet Frontier in 1939-1940, "Polish Review, vol. 33, 1988, no. 3, pp. 295-324.

    (This, and other articles by the author are based mainly on Polish archival sources in the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum, London, and the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA.)

    Same: "The Diplomatic Background of the Warsaw Rising of 1944: The Players and the Stakes," Polish Review, vol. 39, no. 4, 1994, pp. 393-413.

    Same: "Great Britain and Poland before and after Yalta, 1939-1945," Polish Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, pp. 281-314.

    Same: "General Sikorski and the Conclusion f the Polish-Soviet Agreement of July 30, 1941: A Reassessment," Polish Review, vol. 41, no. 4, 1996, pp. 401- 434.

    Same: "New Light on Oskar Lange as an Intermediary between Roosevelt and Stalin in Attempts to Create a New Polish Government (January November 1944)," Acta Poloniae Historica, (Warsaw, 1996) vol. 73, pp. 89-134.

    (This article is based on U. S. and Russian archival documents.;see also R. Szymczak articles listed under E below).

    Krystyna Kersten, The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943- 1947, translated and annotated by John Micgiel and Michael H. Bernard; foreword by Jan T. Gross (University of California Press, 1991).

    (Ttranslation of a work based on Polish party archives, which first appeared in the underground press in 1984. K. Kersten is a prominent Polish historian of 20th c. Poland and em. faculty member of the Polish History Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. [For Eng. lang. communist documents, see A. Polonsky and Drukier under Documents, below.]

    Stanislaw Kot, Conversations with the Kremlin and Dispatches from Russia, (London, Oxford, 1963).

    (Translation and annotation by Henry Charles Stevens of a work first published in Polish. St. Kot, 1885-1975, a cultural historian, one of the leaders of the interwar Polish Peasant Party and close adviser to Polish Premier and Commander-in-Chief, General W. Sikorski, was Polish ambassador to Soviet Russia 1941-43; he quotes extensively from his reports to and correspondence with Sikorski.

    Documents on Polish-Soviet Relations in World War II.

    DOCUMENTS ON POLISH-SOVIET RELATIONS, 1939-1945, 2 vols., (London, General Sikorski Historical Institute, 1961, 1967.

    Excellent selection of translated and edited Polish documents from the archives of the Polish Government-in-Exile, now in the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum, London.)

    Wojciech Materski, ed., Kremlin versus Poland 1939-1945. Documents from the Soviet Archives, (Warsaw, 1996).

    (16 of the 18 documents cover the WW II period. This is a very useful supplement to Engl. lang. documents, showing Soviet policy on Poland as made and seen in Moscow. The documents are presented in copies of Russian documents with Eng. trans. See also Cienciala et al., eds., Katyn. A Crime Without Punishment (New Haven, Conn., 2007.)

    Antony Polonsky and Boleslaw Drukier, eds., The Beginnings of Communist Rule in Poland, December 1943 June 1945, (London, 1980).

    A. Polonsky, a historian of modern Poland and editor of thePolin series, was then teaching at the London School of Economics, is now Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Washington,D .C. ; B. Drukier, was a former member of the Polish Central Committee who left Poland in 1968. These are translations of Polish documents taken by Drukier when he left Poland.)

    Oleg A. Rzheshevsky, ed., WAR AND DIPLOMACY. The Making of the Grand Alliance, trans. T.Sorokina, (Amsterdam, 1996).

    (The Russian documents show Stalin's aims and tactics in negotiating the alliance with Great Britain, signed finally in May 1942. The Polish-Soviet border was a frequent subject of discussion, but Stalin decided not to press the issue at this time. Rzheshevsky is the director of the Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.)

    C. Great Britain and Poland in World War II:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "Great Britain and Poland Before and After Yalta," Polish Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, pp. 281-314.

    George Kacewicz, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the Polish Government in Exile (1939-1945), (The Hague, 1979).

    (Good use of published documentary sources, some Polish archival sources, but now partially outdated due to the release of some Russia and many Polish documents after 1989.).

    Anita J. Prazmowska, BRITAIN AND POLAND 1939-1943. The Betrayed Ally, (Cambridge, UK, 1995).

    (A. Prazmowska is a British historian of Polish descent teaching at the London School of Economics. She makes very good use of English and some Polish archival sources on British policy, but excoriates the Polish government for being "unrealistic. " This view ignores Polish public opinion both in occupied Poland, in the Polish armed forces in the West, emigre Poles and Polish-Americans, most of whom opposed Soviet political and territorial demands. See Cienciala, Polish Review, vol. 42, no. 3, 1997, pp. 379-83, also in Micgiel and Wandycz eds., Reflections on Polish Foreign Policy, New York, 2007.)).

    Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, POLAND'S PLACE IN EUROPE. General Sikorski and the Origins of the Oder-Neisse Line, 1939-1943, (Princeton, N. J., 1983).

    (S. Meiklejohn Terry is a Political Scientist who then taughtat Tufts University. She makes excellent use of Polish and British archival sources available in London. She argues that it was Sikorski and not the Polish communists who first proposed a Polish western frontier on the Oder-Western Neisse Line. He was certainly the forst Polish statesman to do so, but Russian documents in English translation published in 1996 (Rzheshevsky, ed.,) show that Stalin proposed a Polish frontier on the Oder in his talks with British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden in mid-December 1941.

    Edward Raczynski, In Allied London, (London, 1962).

    (These memoirs -- a shortened version of the Polish original -- are based on the author's diaries with some photographs. Edward Raczynski, 1891-1993, was in the Polish diplomatic service from 1918 onward. He was Polish ambassador in London 1932-45, also acting Foreign Minister in 1940-43. After the war, he succeeded August Zaleski as President of the symbolic Polish government-in-exile.)

    D. British studies on British policy in World War II (with reference to Poland):

    Sir LLewellyn Woodward, BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 2d revised edition, 3 vols, (London, 1970-73).

    (L. Woodward ,1890-1971, had free access to British archival documents. This is still a very useful work, although the British archives for the wartime period became accessible in 1971.)

    Elizabeth Barker, Churchill and Eden at War, (London, 1978).

    (E. Barker, a British historian, also wrote on British policy in the Balkans. This book has a good chapter on Poland).

    Victor Rothwell, BRITAIN AND THE COLD WAR, 1941-1947, (London, 1982).

    (ch. 2 and 3 deal with British policy toward the USSR and Eastern Europe. Rothwell also authored a book on British War Aims and Peace Diplomacy 1914- 1918.)

    E. U.S. Policy toward and on Poland in World War II.

    Jan Ciechanowski, DEFEAT IN VICTORY, (Garden City, N. Y., 1947).

    (Jan Ciechanowski, 1888-1958, was Polish ambassador in Washington, D. C., 1941- 45. This is an excellent source based on his notes, manu of which correspond with his reports , now in the Polish Foreign Ministry collection, Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA. He is not to be confused with Jan M. Ciechanowski, a Polish historian who had taught for many years in London, also authoring books and articles on Poland in WWII.)

    William Larsch, "W. Averell Harriman and the Polish Question, December 1943 August 1944," East European Politics and Societies, vol. 7, no. 3, 1993.

    (W. Larsch was then completing his Ph. D. dissertation at Yale University. Based on the Harriman papers, this reveals FDR's irritation with the Polish government-in-exile, and his determination to have a new Polish govt. established that would be acceptable both to Stalin and U.S. public opinion.).

    Same, "Yalta and the American Approach to Free Elections in Poland," Polish Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, pp. 267-280.

    (Shows that the Yalta promise of free elections in Poland was made without any serious intent to see them carried out.)

    Richard C. Lukas, THE STRANGE ALLIES. The United States and Poland, 1941- 1945, (Knoxville, Tenn., 1978).

    (On Lukas, see his book in IX, section 1, above. This is a very good survey based mainly on U. S. archival sources and published materials.)

    Robert Szymczak, "Oskar Lange, American Polonia and the Polish-Soviet Dilemma During World War II: I. The Public Partisan as Private Emissary," Polish Review, vol. 40, 1995, no. 1, pp. 3-28.

    Same, "Oskar Lange . II. Making a Case for a 'People's Poland, '"Polish Review, vol. 40, 1995, no. 2, pp. 131-158. (cf. Anna M. Cienciala, on Oskar Lange, section B above).

    (Szymczak, who teaches history at Pennsylvania State University, Beaver Lake, makes excellent use of U. S. archival sources.)

    Same: "Uneasy Observers: The OSS Foreign Nationalities Branch and Perceptions of Polish Nationalism in the United States during World War II," Polish American Studies, vol. 56, no. 1., Spring 1999, pp. 7-74.

    (a valuable piece of research on OSS --Office of Special Services --surveillance of Polish and Polish-American activities at this time.)

    F. American Policy in World War II, with reference to Poland.

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The United States and Poland in World War II," The Polish Review, 2009, no. 2

    John Lamberton Harper, AMERICAN VISIONS OF EUROPE. Franklin D. Roosevelt, George F. Kennan and Dean G. Acheson, (Cambridge, UK, 1994.)

    (On J. L. Harper, see Polish Question in WW II, above. The author argues that Roosevelt was a Jeffersonian in foreign policy, so had no interest in a postwar U. S. presence in Europe. Thus, he shared Stalin's view on natural Soviet predominance in E. Europe. Jeffersonian or not, FDR's priorities in 1943-45 were: 1. Soviet participation in the war against Japan; 2. Soviet participation in the United Nations. His concern with E. Europe, esp. Poland, was mainly with U.S. voters of E.Eur. descent, esp. Polish-Americans.A. M.C.)

    Warren F. Kimball, THE JUGGLER. Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman, (Princeton, N. J., 1991).

    (W. F, Kimball, b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1935,, U. S. Navy, 1958-65, has authored many books and edited the complete Churchill-Roosevelt wartime correspondence. This is a collection of articles by an admirer of FDR, who then taughte at Rutgers University. Contrast with: John Lamberton Harper above.)

    G. Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States and Poland in World War II.

    LLoyd C. Gardner, SPHERES OF INFLUENCE. The Great Powers Partition Europe, from Munich to Yalta, (Chicago, 1993).

    (L. C. Gardner, b. Delaware, OH., 1939, served in USAAF 1961- 65, then taught at Rutgers University. He argues that the division between Western and Easter Europe, both at Munich in 1938 and in 1945, was natural and beneficial to all concerned. This view was not shared by the peoples of Eastern Europe and East European exiles in the West, nor do they share it today, A.M.C.)

    Edward J. Rozek, ALLIED WARTIME DIPLOMACY: A Pattern in Poland, New York, 1958, reprint (Boulder, CO, 1989).

    (E. J. Rozek, b. Poland, 1920, d. U.S. 2009, served with the Polish Armed Forces in the West in World War II, earning Polish and U. S. decorations. Educated as a Political Scientist in the U. S., he was a long time Professor of Pol. Sc. at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Co.,and for 30 yrs. director of the Institute for the Study of Economic and Political Freedom, also of the Slavic Studies Program there. He condemns the western betrayal of Poland. The book is valuable for its use of the papers of Stanislaw Mikolajczyk (1900-1960), Premier of the Polish Government- in- exile, July 1943-November 1944, and a Deputy Premier in postwar Poland, 1945-46. After losing the communist-rigged elections of Jan. 27, 1947, his life was threatened and he escaped tothe West, settling in the U.S. whence he continued his fight for an indepndent Poland. His papers are now accessible in the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA).


    H. Polish Government Policy in World War II.

  • Anna M. Cienciala (see articles listed in section B, above, esp. in Micgiel and Wandycz eds., Reflections on Polish Foreign Policy, New York, 2007.)

    Jan Karski, The Great Powers and Poland, 1919-1945. From Versailles to Yalta, University Press of America, Lanham, MD., 1985.

    (Part II is a good survey, based mostly on secondary sources. Jan Karski, 1914- 2000, a member of the Polish Home Army in WW II, is best known for his daring foray into a death camp for Jews at or near Belzec, and also into the Warsaw Ghetto, to gather eye witness evidence of the German genocide of the Jews in Poland. He carried the news to London, where he arrived in November 1942. His report led to the Polish Government's appeal to other allied governments to act in order to stop the genocide, but the appeal came to naught. His book on the Polish underground, The Secret State (Boston, 1944 and reprints), is a dramatic account of underground resistance in Poland altough he changed the names of people he mentioned to protect them from the Germans. He settled in the U. S. after the war and taught International Relations and Communist Theory at Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., devoting the last years of his life to speaking about the Holocaust. See: "In Memoriam. Jan Karski (1914-2000)," U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, September/October 2000, p. 3. See also: Thomas E. Wood and Stanislaw Jankowski, Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust, New York, 1994.)

    Piotr S. Wandycz, Polish Diplomacy: Aims and Achievements, 1919- 1945, (London, 1988).

    (Succinct overview by a master diplomatic historian. Professor Wandycz, b. Poland 1923, has published many works on diplomatic history in the period 1918-36, as well as books on Polish-Soviet relations 1917-21, Polish-U. S. relations, and a history of East Central Europe. He is Bradford Durfee Professor Emeritus of Yale University.)

    (i) Documents on the Great Powers and the Polish Question in World War II

    Antony Polonsky, ed., THE GREAT POWERS AND THE POLISH QUESTION, 1941- 1945, (London, 1976).

    (British, Polish and American documents, some Russian, edited by a historian of Poland and Polish Jewry. Polonsky, the editor of the POLIN volumes on the history the Jews in Poland, and a two volume history on this subject: The Jews in Poland and Russia, Oxford and Portland, OR, 2010, holds the Abrahmson chair of Jewish History at Brandeis University.)

    The Sikorski Institute, London, ed., Documents on Polish-Soviet Relations, 1939-1945, 2 vols.,(London, 1961, 1967.)

    (English translations of diplomatic documents edited by Polish scholars, this is still a very useful selection with end notes. The Institute was later renamed: The Sikorski Institute and Polish Museum. It houses Polish foreign policy documents for the interwar and wartime period.



    A. Surveys.

    J (Josef). Korbel, 20th Century Czechoslovakia: The Meanings of its History (New York, 1977, ch. 8.

    (On Korbel, see interwar Czechoslovakia.)

    Victor S. Mamatey and Radomir Luza, A History of the Czechoslovak Republic, (Princeton, N.J.1973), Part Two, ch. 8-13.

    (On the authors, see interwar Czechoslovakia.)

    B. Occupied Bohemia-Moravia, Czechoslovak Armed Forces and the Government-in-Exile.

    Edvard Benes, with an Introduction and editing by Milan Hauner, The Fall and Rise of a Nation: Czechoslovakia 1939-1941 (New York, 2004).

    (Edvard Benes, 1884-1948; Czechoslovak Foreign Minister, 1918-35; President, 1935-38, head of the government in exile, 1939-45, President 1945-1948. Milan Hauner, b. in Germany in WW II, educated in Czechoslovakia, France and Britain, is a specialist on 20th c. European history and professor of history at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. He is the author of six books and over 100 scholarly articles.)

    Bruce Berglund, "Lidice and the Czechoslovak Exiles in UK, "Kosmas: Czechoslovak and Central European Journal, vol. XIII, no. 1, 1998, pp. 136- 88.

    (Berglund, now a professor at Calvin College,was then a Ph. D. student at the University of Kansas.)

    Same, "We Wish We Were Home;" The Czechoslovak Emigre Community in Britain, 1940- 1945, Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1999.

    (Based on thorough research in Czech archives in Prague and U. S., this is an excellent work on the subject.)

    Chad Bryant., Prague in Black: Nazi Rule and Czech Nationalism,(Cambridge, Mass, 2007).

    (reviews by Gary B. Cohen, Slavic Review, v. 67, no.3, Fall 2008, pp. 741-742; David Gerlach, "The Protectorate in Shades of Gray," HABSBURG, May 2008, URL:

    Avigdor Dagan (Viktor Fischl), ed., "The Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile and the Jews," in: Same, The Jews of Czechoslovaka: Historical Studies and Surveys, (Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, PA., 1984), pp. 449-495.

    (A. Dagan, b. Czechoslovakia, 1913, represented the Jewish Party in the Czechoslovak parliament before the war; was in London during the war, and became an Israeli diplomat in 1950.)

    Peter Demetz, Prague in Danger: The Years of German Occupation, 1939-45: Memoirs and History, Terror and Resistance, Theater and Jazz, Film and Poetry, Politics and War (New York, 2008).

    (P. Demetz was born in. Prague, 1922 into a mixed Ladino-Jewish family; his father was a poet and theater director (German); his Jewish mother died in Theresienstadt.The author lived in Prague during WW II; survived a German forced labor camp and emigrated to the U.S. in 1948. He also wrote a history of Prague from the beginning to the death of Thomas G. Masaryk (1937): Prague in Black and Gold (Hill and Wang, 1997). He is Sterling Professor Emeritus of Germanic Language and Literature at Yale (2009). See excellent, informative review of Prague in Danger,by John Banville, "The Invader Wore Slippers," New York Review of Books, May 28, 2009, pp. 32-34.

    Radomir Luza, The Hitler Kiss A Memoir of the Czech Resistance, (Baton Rouge, LA, 2002).

    (Personal memoir by the son of a Czech resistance leader who was betrayed and killed. The author shows that Czech resistance was largely passive until 1944. He taught history for many years at the Univ. of Louisiana at Baton Rouge.)

    Vojtech Mastny, THE CZECHS UNDER NAZI RULE. The Failure of National Resistance, 1939-1942, (New York, 1971.)

    (Nazi policy was fairly lenient until the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in May 1942, by Czech commandos parachuted from Britain. There was a collaborationist government under President Emil Hacha which, however, was in secret contact with the Czechoslovak government in London. Mastny cites Czech underground leaders begging President E. Benes not to proceed with the assassination of Heydrich because it was bound to bring severe reprisals and destroy the underground, but Benes decided to go through with it to prove that the Czechs were resisting the German occupation. (pp. 209 ff). The result was the German burning of Lidice. (See Berglund above and Macdonald below).

    Same, "The Benes-Stalin-Molotov Conversations in December 1943. New Documents," Geschichte Osteuropas, vol. 20, no. 3, 1972, pp. 367-402.

    (A Czech account of important conversations in Moscow which laid the basis for the semi-democratic Czechoslovak political system tolerated by Stalin in 1945-48.)


    (C. Macdonald, b. Scotland, 1947, was then teaching at the University of Warwick, UK. This is a detailed study of the plan to drop Czech parachutists from the UK to kill Heydrich, its implementation, and German retaliation. Heydrich was killed by Czechs parachuted in from London. Betrayed by one of their own, the rest fought to the death rather than surrender.)

    Alice Teichova, "The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1945): the economic dimension," in: Mikulas Teich, Bohemia in History, (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 267-305.

    (A good survey by a Czech economic historian.)

    Lewis White, ed., On All Fronts: Czechs and Slovaks in World War II, East European Monographs, (Boulder CO., and New York, 1991).

    (The most comprehensive Eng. lang. work on the topic so far.)

    President Edvard Benes in World War II.

    Edvard Benes, MEMOIRS OF DR. EDUARD BENES: From Munich to New Victory, trans. Geoffrey Lias, (London, 1954, reprint Wstport, CT, 1978).

    (Benes wrote these memoirs with an eye to Soviet susceptibilities.)

    George F. Kennan, FROM PRAGUE AFTER MUNICH. Diplomatic Papers, 1938- 1940, (Princeton, N. J. 1968).

    ( Memoirs of G. F. Kennan, 1904-2005, American diplomat, later famous as an analyst on Soviet foreign policy, was the U. S. minister in Prague at this time.)

    Edward Taborsky, PRESIDENT EDVARD BENES BETWEEN EAST AND WEST, 1938- 1948, (Stanford, CA, 1981), ch. 1-8.

    (E. Taborsky, b. Prague, 1910, Benes's Private Secretary during WW II, wrote this v. valuable work. It is based on his contemporary notes; his papers are in the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA. The author was, for many years, a Professor of Government at the University of Texas, Houston, TX., and authored Communism in Czechoslovakia, 1948-1960, (Princeton, 1961.)

    Zbynek Zeman with Antonin Klimek, The Life of Edvard Benes, 1884-1948. Czechoslovakia in Peace and War, (Oxford, 1997), ch. 10-14.

    (Highly critical of Benes. For the Czech authors, see section on Interwar Czechoslovakia.)

    C. The Sudeten Germans at the end of World War II.

    Radomir Luza, THE TRANSFER OF THE SUDETEN GERMANS. A Study of Czech-German Relations, 1933-1962, (New York, 1964), Part III, Decisive Years.

    (A valuable study.On Luza, see sections on interwar and wartime Czechoslovakia).

    Ronald M. Smelser, "The Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans: 1945-1952," NATIONALITIES PAPERS, vol. 24, no. 1, March 1996, pp. 79-92.

    (While the expulsion of any people from their homeland is a violation of human rights, we should keep in mind that most Sudeten Germans welcomed German sovereignty and that thousands of Czechs were expelled from the Sudetenland after its annexation by Germany in October 1938. Therefore, when Benes issued the appropriate decrees, the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans was supported by the vast majority of Czechs. and Czech public opinion supports it to this day.)

    D. Slovakia in World War II.

    Yeshayahu A. Jelinek, THE PARISH REPUBLIC: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, 1939-1945, East Eur. Mon. 14, (Boulder, CO., New York, 1976).

    (A very critical study by a Czech-born Israeli historian.)

    Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia, (New York, 1995), ch. 9, 10.

    (A study sympathetic to Slovakia by a Canadian historian of Slovakia. On Kirschbaum, see interwar Czechoslovakia.)

    E. Subcarpathian Rus in World War II.

    Paul R. Magocsi, The Shaping of a National Identity: Subcarpathian Rus', 1848-1948, (Cambridge, Mass., 1978), ch. 12, 13.

    (This region, belonging to Hungary until 1914, then Czechoslovakia, then Hungary, was annexed to Soviet Ukraine in 1944-45. Its people have fruitlessly demanded autonomy in Ukraine since it became independent in 1992. Magocsi was then teacronto. His 32 books (so far) include a Historical Atlas of East Central Europe, an Atlas of Ukrainian history, and a History of Ukraine.)

    Section 7. pt. 3. HUNGARY in World War II.

    A. Surveys:

    Jorg K. Hoensch, A History of Modern Hungary, 1867-1986, trans. Kim Traynor, (London, New York 1988, 2nd edition, 1996), ch. 4.

    (J. K. Hoensch (1936-2000),a Czech-born German specialist on East European history, who published numerous books and articles on the countries of this region, held the chair of East European History at the University of the Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany, 1972-2000. The chair died with him.)

    C. A. Macartney, OCTOBER FIFTEENTH. A History of Modern Hungary, 1929- 1945, (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1961), vol. I, ch. 18-24, and vol. II

    (Macartney, 1895-1978, was a British historian sympathetic to Hungary; still worth reading. On the author, see Agenes Beretzky, "C.A. Macartney. A Devoted and Frustrate Friend of Hungary," European Review of History, vol. 6, 1, 1999, pp. 45-46.)

    Peter F. Sugar et al., A History of Hungary, (Bloomington, IN, 1990). Ch. 18, pp. 346-355, covers the war period.

    (P. F. Sugar, d. 1999, was an eminent historian of Eastern Europe who taught for many years at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA.)

    Kristian Ungvary, Battle for Budapest. 100 Days in World War II, Translated by Ladislaus Lob, (London, 2003).

    (Hitler ordered Budapest to be defended at all costs and much of the city was destroyed in the battle or siege of Budapest between German and Hungarian troops on the one side and Soviet and Romanian troops on the other, Dec.29 1944- Feb. 13, 1944. See review by Thomas Land, Times Literary Supplement, 19 & 26 December 2003, p. 35.)

    B. Hungarian WW II Diplomacy:

    Mario D. Fenyo, HITLER, HORTHY AND HUNGARY. German-Hungarian Relations, 1941-1944, (New Haven, 1972).

    Stephen D. Kertesz, DIPLOMACY IN A WHIRLPOOL. Hungary Between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, (Notre Dame, IN, 1953), ch. 4, pp. 48-57.

    (Kertesz was a Hungarian diplomat before becoming an American scholar specializing in Hungary. On the author, see under interwar Hungary. This an older work, still useful, by a Hungarian diplomat.)

    Guyla Juhasz, HUNGARIAN FOREIGN POLICY, 1914-1945, (Budapest, 1975), ch. IV, V, pp. 157-338, cover the war period.

    (This is the most detailed account of the topic in English. Juhasz is a diplomatic historian; the book was written under some political constraints but is generally reliable.)

    Thomas L. Sakmyster, Hungary's admiral on horseback: Miklos Horthy 1918-1944, East European Monographs, (Boulder, CO., and New York, 1994).

    (This is a very valuable study. critical of Horthy; see note on author in section on interwar Hungary.)

    Lorent Tilkovszky, PAL TELEKI (1879-1941): A Biographical Sketch, (Budapest, 1974).

    (P. Teleki, Premier 1920-21 and 1939-41, committed suicide when Horthy abandoned the policy of balancing between Great Britain and Germany. This biography is biased against the Premier.)

    Documents on Admiral Horthy.

    Miklos de Nagabanya Horthy, CONFIDENTIAL PAPERS, edited by Miklos Szinai and Laszlo Szacs, (Budapest, 1965).

    (This is a selection of documents, accompanied by comments with a strong anti-Horthy bias.)

    C. Horthy's Memoirs.

    Nicholas Horthy, Memoirs, 1957, reprint, (Westport CT, 1978).

    (Written in exile near Lisbon, Portugal, these memoirs give the author's point of view. For a reliable biography, see Sakmyster above.)

    D. Kallay Memoirs.

    Miklos Kallay, HUNGARIAN PREMIER: A Personal Account of a Nation's Struggle in the Second World War, (New York, 1954, reprint, Westport, CT, 1970).

    (M. Kallay, 1887-1967, was Premier in 1942-44, when both he and Adm. Horthy refused German Nazi orders to round up Hungarian Jews.They were, however, rounded up by Hungarian fascists, who came to power in 1944 and deported the Jews to German death camps in German-occupied Poland. Many were saved by the Swedish Red Cross reprsentative Raul Wallenberg, who was arrested by Soviet authorities and died in a Soviet jail.These memoirs were written in exile.)

    Other Memoirs on Hungary in WW II.

    John Flournoy-Montgomery, Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite, (New York, 1947).

    (A sympathetic account by a former U. S. ambassador in Budapest, 1933-41.)

    Ferenc A. Vali, A SCHOLAR'S ODYSSEY, (Ames, Iowa, 1990).

    (Life story of an American scholar of Hungarian origin, author of a book on the Hungarian Uprising of 1956.)

    E. Hungarian Jews in WW II.

    Randolph L. Braham, comp., THE HUNGARIAN JEWISH CATASTROPHE: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography 1984-2000, (revised edition, East Eur. Monographs no. 583, New York, 2001.)

    R. L. Braham (b. Romania, 1922) is a historian of the Holocaust; he then taught at the City University of New York.

    Same with Bela Vago, eds., The Holocaust in Hungary Forty Years Later, (Social Science Monographs and Institute of Holocaust Studies of the City University of New York, and Institute of Holocaust Studies of the University of Haifa, 1985).

    (Part II contains chapters on the Holocaust in Hungary; part III, deals with Interpretations and Reactions; part IV is titled: The Lingering Issue. On the editors, see: Interwar Hungary).

    Same with Attila Pok, eds., The Holocaust in Hungary Fifty Years Later, (New York, 1997).

    (This is a volume of papers read at a conference in Budapest, April 1994. Some of the papers are published in English, some in Hungarian. After the Opening Remarks, in which a former K.U administrator, Frances, Dagen Horowitz, took part, the book is divided as follows: Antecedents (2 papers are in English); The Holocaust Era: 1941-45 (3 Papers in English); The Postwar Era (7 papers in English). Attila Pok, was then Director of the Institute of History, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.)

    Same, "An Assault on Historical Memory: Hungarian Nationalists and the Holocaust," East European Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 4, Winter 1999, pp. 411- 425.

    Same and Brewster S. Chamberlain, eds., The Holocaust in Hungary: Sixty Years Later, New York, NY, 2006; see review by Gabor Szegedi, "Rediscovering the Holocaust in Hungary," H-German, H-Net Reviews December 2006, URL:

    Janos Pelle, Sowing the Seeds of Hatred: Anti-Jewish Laws and Hungarian Public Opinion, 1938-1944, (New York, NY, 2004).

    (reviewed in Journal of Modern History, v. 79, 1,pp. 230-232, 2007)

    \Tamas Stark, Hungarian Jews During the Holocaust and After the Second World War, 1939-1949, (New York, NY, 2000)..

    Bela Zsolt, Nine Suitcases, translated by Ladislaus Lob, (London, 2003).

    (The extraordinary odyssey of a Jewish-Hungarian family; review in Times Literary Supplement, 03/12/04, p. 37.)


    Section 7, pt. 4. The Balkans in World War II.

    1. Surveys:

    Barbara Jelavich, HISTORY OF THE BALKANS. Twentieth Century, (Cambridge, UK, 1973, and reprints), ch. 7.

    (On author, see Pt I, Balkans)

    John R. Lampe, and Mark Mazower, eds., Balkans into Southeastern Europe. A Century of War and Transition (Central European Press, 20060.

    (J. R. Lampe is an American specialist on Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; he teaches at the University of Maryland, College Park, MD. Mark Mazower is the author of the magisterial work: Hitler's East European Empire, New York, 2008,; he teaches at Columbia University, New York.)

    L. S. Stavrianos, THE BALKANS SINCE 1453, (New York, 1959), ch. 38.

    (On author, see Pt I, Balkans).

    2. British Policy in the Balkans in WW II:

    Phyllis Auty and Richard Clogg, eds., British Policy Towards Wartime Resistance in Yugoslavia and Greece, (London, 1975).

    (P. Auty, b. UK, 1910, was a specialist on Yugoslavia; R. Clogg is a British historian of Greece. These are conference papers including those by Elizabeth Barker, an English historian of World War II diplomacy (see below), and Frederick W. Deakin (b. 1913), who was involved in Special Operations in Yugoslavia in World War II and is an authority on the subject.)

    Elizabeth Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, (London, 1976).

    (Detailed study by a specialist.)

    Stoyan Rachev, Anglo-Bulgarian Relations during the Second World War (1939- 1944), (Sofia, 1981. See also under: Yugoslavia).

    (Work by a Bulgarian historian written under political constraints.)

    (i) Albania in WW II.

    Julian Amery, SONS OF THE EAGLE: A Study in Guerrilla War, (London, 1948).

    (J. Amery, b. London, 1919, was a British liaison officer to the Albanian resistance movement, 1944. He also wrote a biography of Joseph Chamberlain (1932) and an autobiography (1973).

    Berndt J. Fischer, Albania at War, 1939-1945, (West Lafayette, IN., 1999).

    (Fischer, an expert on Albania and Germany, also international relations, then taught in the Dept. of History, Indiana/Purdue University. This work, based on many primary and secondary sources, is the best study of the subject for far. (see Richard Crampton's review, Slavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 653-654).

    Miranda Vickers, A History of Albania, (New York, N. Y., 1999), chapter 7.

    (By an expert on the subject; see also Lec.Notes 16, Albania.)

    (ii) Bulgaria in WWII.

    R. J. Crampton, A Short History of Modern Bulgaria, (Cambridge, UK, 1987), pp. 124-134.

    Same, A Concise History of Bulgaria, (Cambridge, UK, 1997 and reprints), ch. 7.

    (On R. J. Crampton, see Part I, Historical Atlases.)

    Michael M. Boll, THE COLD WAR IN THE BALKANS: American Foreign Policy and the Emergence of Communist Bulgaria, 1943-1947, (Lexington, Ky., 1984).

    Stephane Groueff, CROWN OF THORNS: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918-1943, (Lanham, Md., 1987).

    (favorable to the King.)

    John R. Lampe, THE BULGARIAN ECONOMY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, (New York, 1986), ch. 4.

    (Study of the late communist Bulgarian economy by an expert.)

    Marshall Lee Miller, Bulgaria during the Second World War, (Stanford, 1975).

    (by an American historian.)

    Nissen Oren, BULGARIAN COMMUNISM: The Road to Power, 1934-1944, (Baltimore, 1973).

    (By an American specialist on Bulgaria.)

    Bulgarian Jews in WW II.

    Frederick B. Chary, The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution, 1940- 44, (Pittsburg, 1972).

    (F. B. Chary, b. Philadelphia, 1939, then taught at Indiana University North West, and edited the journal South East Europe. Bulgarians protected their Jewish co-citizens in the old Bulgarian lands, but not in territory annexed during WW II.)

    (iii) Greece in WW II.

    1. Surveys

    Richard Clogg, A Short History of Modern Greece, (Cambridge University Press, 1974, 1979).

    (By a British historian of Greece ;see chapter on Greece in Lec.Notes 16, World War II.)

    Same, Greece, 1940-1949. Occupation, Resistance, Civl War: A Documentary History, (London, 2003).

    D. George Kousoulas, Modern Greece. Profile of a Nation, (New York, 1974), ch. 5, The War Years, pp. 194-221.

    (D. G. Kousoulas, a Greek historian, was then Professor of Political Science at Howard University.)

    2. The Great Powers and Greece in WW II and the immediate postwar period.

    Peter J. Stavrakis, Moscow and Greek Communism, 1944-1949, (Ithaca and London, 1989).

    (P. J. Stavrakis was then teaching Political Science at the University of Vermont. The book is based on Greek and U. S. archival documents; it shows that Stalin shifted his policy in response to Greek politics and according to his relations with the western Powers.)

    Lawrence S. Wittner, American Intervention in Greece, 1943-1949, (New York, 1982).

    (L. W. Wittner was then teaching at SUNY, Albany, N.Y; he criticizes U. S. policy.)


    (iv) Romania in WW II.

    Dinu C. Giurescu, Romania in World War II, (New York, 2000)

    (Editorial Reviews, as of May 26, 2009.)

    "The author's aims are to explain significant developments; to reconstitute attitudes, reactions, decisions, and motivations of the key players; and to put Romania's situation in its wider historical context....The author is particularly successful in reconstituting the motivations and actions of key Romanian players....The primary value of "Romania in the Second World War" is to give English-speaking readers a window on the evolving debate in Romania on its internal wartime politics and policy. It offers a mine of sourced quotes and a useful Romanian-language bibliography." -- M.W.A. Axworthy, "Journal of Military History"

    Product Description
    Focusing on the case of a small state engulfed in the worldwide war, this book is a critical analysis from a global comparative perspective of Romania's major developments between 1939-1945. The book explains significant events as recorded in documents and in cross-examination and reenacts the way of thinking, actions, reactions, and motivations of the decision-makers and of the political opposition of the time, as events unfolded beyond their capacity to control them. The author puts events within a historical, geopolitical, perspective, both global and local.)

    Keith Hitchins, RUMANIA 1866-1947, (Oxford, 1994), ch. 11, pp. 451-500.

    (K. Hitchins, b. Schenectady, N. Y., 1931, is the leading American historian of Romania; he then taught at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, IL.

    Paul E. Michelson, "In Search of the 20th Century: Marshal Antonescu and Romanian History A Review Essay," Romanian Civilization, vol. III, no. 2, 1994, pp. 49-64.

    (Marshal Ion Antonescu, 1882-1946, was Head of State 1940-44 and an ally of Germany, but tried to open peace negotiations with the western allies in 1942-43, without success. Arrested by the Russians in late August 1944, he and other members of his cabinet were taken to Moscow and held there until their show trial, March 1946; he was executed June 1, 1946.

    P. E. Michelson is an American historian of Romania and one of the co-authors of A History of Romania, (see Kurt W. Treptow, below).

    Kurt W. Treptow ed., A History of Romania, (3rd ed., Iasi, Romanai, 1997). Ch. III, The Twentieth Century pp. 467-513 covers the wartime period.

    (This book was written by Romanian and American historians; it is sympathetic to Romania.)

    British and American Policies toward Romania in WW II.

    Elizabeth Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, (London, 1976).

    (On Barker, see British Policy toward the Balkans; Paul D. Quinlan, Clash over Romania: British and American Policies towards Romania, 1938-1947, (Los Angeles, CA, 1977.)

    (v) Yugoslavia in WW II.

    A. Surveys:

    Stephen Clissold, ed., A Short History of Yugoslavia, (Cambridge, UK, 1966, 1968), ch. 11.

    (S. Clissold, b. UK, 1913, was sent to Yugoslavia in 1943 and acted as a translator for Winston S. Churchill and J. B. Tito at their meeting in Italy, 1944.)

    Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, (Cambridge, UK, 1985), ch. 9.

    (F. Singleton was chair of the Postgraduate School of Yugoslav Studies at the University of Bradford, 1971-81, when he retired.)

    Jozo Tomasovich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945. Occupation and Collaboration (Stanford, CA, 2001).

    (The best work on the subject. See Crompton review in International History Review, vol. XXIV, no. 4, Dec. 2002, pp. 931-933.)

    Wayne S. Vucinich, ed., CONTEMPORARY YUGOSLAVIA: Twenty Years of Socialist Experiment (Berkeley, CA, 1969). See Jozo V. Tomasevich's excellent article on Yugoslavia in the war.

    (Wayne S. Vucinich, an American of Serbian descent, 1913-2005, grew up in Herzegovina but returned to the U.S. at age 18. He studied history at Berkeley, CA., with the famous Slavicist, Robert Kerner; continued in Prague until the Munich Crisis of 1938 and finished his Ph.D. under Kerner in 1941. He served in the army at OSS H.Q. in Bari, Italy, later being posted to Bulgaria. He joined the Stanford Univ. History Dept., in 1946 to teach Western Civilization, but then specialized in Balkan studies. He was one of the founding fathers of Russian and East European, particularly Balkan studies in the U.S. after WW II, authored at least 14 books and guided many Ph.D.dissertations. See the Norman M. Naimark and David M. Kennedy Wayne S.Vucinich Memorial Resolution.)


    B. Mihailovich's Chetniks, and allied policies in WW II Yugoslavia.

    Matteo J. Milazzo, THE CHETNIK MOVEMENT and YUGOSLAV RESISTANCE, (Baltimore and London, 1975).

    (a good study.)

    PORTRAIT OF A TRAITOR. The Case of General Mihailovich, Introductory Essay by David Martin. Translation of "Proceedings and Report of the Commission of Inquiry of the Commitee for a Fair Trial for Dragoljub (Draja) Mihajlovich", (Stanford, CA, 1978).

    (General Draza Mihailovich, 1893-1946, who led the royalist resistance movement against the Germans,was given a rigged trial and executed as a traitor by the Communist Yugoslav government. David Martin is an American historian sympathetic to Mihajlovich.)

    Walter R. Roberts, Tito, Mihailovic and the Allies, 1941-1945, (New Brunswick, N. J., 1973).

    (By a former U. S. ambassador to Yugoslavia, sympathetic to Mihailovic.)

    Jozo V. Tomasevich, THE CHETNIKS. vol. l of: War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945 (Stanford, CA, 1977).

    (For Tomasevich's complete work, see section A above.)

    D. Josip Broz Tito, the Partisan Movement, and the Great Powers.

    Nora Beloff, TITO'S FLAWED LEGACY. Yugoslavia and the West since 1939 (Boulder, CO, 1985).

    (Nora Beloff, 1919-1997, was a British writer and journalist. This is an attack on the Tito myth; ch. 1-3 deal with the WW II period.)

    Aleksa Djilas, THE CONTESTED COUNTRY. Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-1953, (Cambridge, Mass, 1991).

    (An excellent study by a sociologist, son of Yugoslav dissident, Milovan Djilas.)

    Milovan Djilas, WARTIME, (New York, 1977).

    Same: TITO. The Story from Inside, (New York, 1980).

    (Milovan Djilas, 1911-1995, a Montenegrain and prewar communist, belonged to the top leadership of Tito's Partisans, but later became a dissident. He became famous with the publication of his book: The New Class; An Analysis of the Communist System, (London, 1958), for which he was imprisoned.

    He published at least 40 books. This is is a critical biography by one who knew Tito well and turned against him. The book ranges over the whole of Tito's life, including wartime.

    Paul Ivan Jukic, Uncommon Cause: The Soviet Union and Rise of Tito's Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, (Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, Director: Ivo Banac, Yale University, May 1997).

    (Based on research in Moscow and Zagreb archives, where the author read previously unknown documents.)

    Michael Lees, THE RAPE OF SERBIA;: The British Role in Tito's Grab for Power, 1943-1944, (San Diego, 1990).

    (by a British liaison officer with the Chetniks, who claims the British helped the Communists; cf. David Martin's book below.)

    Fitzroy Maclean THE HERETIC: The Life and Times of Josip Broz Tito, (New York, 1957).

    (by an admiring British [Scots] officer, member of the British Military Mission to Tito and his Partisans.)

    Same, Eastern Approaches, (London 1949, reprint, 1966.)


    David Martin, THE WEB OF DISINFORMATION: Churchill's Yugoslav Blunder, (New York, 1990).

    (The author argues that Churchill abandoned Mihailovich for Tito under the influence of reports by Communist agents.)

    Walter Roberts, Tito, Mihailovic, and the Allies, 1941-1945, (Durham, NC, 1987).

    (diplomatic history: British, Soviet and U. S. policy toward Yugoslavia by a former U. S. ambassador, sympathetic to Mihailovic.)

    Mark C. Wheeler, Britain and the War for Yugoslavia, 1940-1943, East Eur. Monographs no. 64, (New York, 1980).

    (focuses on British relations with Yugoslav government-in-exile.)